Cross generational relationship sexual-

A podcast about pregnancy and drug use, Native people and tribal sovereignty. In sub-Saharan Africa, cross-generational relationships, typically between adolescent girls and older male partners, have been pointed out as a key vector in the high rates of HIV infection, especially among young girls. However, little to no programmatic attention has been given to reducing the HIV risk that is rampant within cross generational partnerships. Adolescent girls that enter into relationships with older men have limited negotiating power making the sexual partnership significantly imbalanced in favor of the older men. Men engaged in cross generational relationships are largely responsible for the conditions of sexual intercourse, including condom and contraceptive use and the use of violence.

Cross generational relationship sexual

Cross generational relationship sexual

Bombereau G, Allen CF. Enis enlargement pill falls church Caribbean region has the second highest prevalence of HIV worldwide, behind sub-Saharan Africa, and is one of two regions the other being Africa where the proportion of young women living with HIV in the 15—24 age group outnumbers males [ 12 ]. Food insufficiency is associated with high-risk sexual behavior Cross generational relationship sexual women in Botswana and Swaziland. IRH contributed to the design and led the statistical analysis Cross generational relationship sexual the study, as well as critical revision and intellectual content. Regular participation in religious worship at least weekly was statistically significantly associated with a lower chance of reporting a sexual encounter with any-age partner. Money or gifts from same-age partner? Cross-generational and transactional sexual relations in Uganda: income poverty as a risk factor for adolescents - full report. The causes of cross generational sex have been sung every now and then but do people ever open their ears to listen to them or they are too deaf to be affected.

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The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and risk factors for intergenerational IG -sex in females aged 15—19 residing in Barbados.

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Cross generational sex can be defined as sexual relationships between adults and partners who are young enough to be their children or grandchildren. There are no measures in place that can help find out how far successful the campaign has been so far. Research has been carried out by scholars to find out what could possibly be the causes of this act in society. Messages have been drawn on bill boards, passed over radios and even print media by the activists but all this seems to create no impact at all.

Younger girls have been sighted on the streets, in bars, hotels cuddling their sugar daddies with no shame whatsoever because this seems to be the trend of their times.

So many sugar daddies and mummies have been heard saying they want to get something fresh but does it ever cross their minds that what goes around comes around? That tomorrow it could be their daughters and sons being slaughtered like sacrificial lambs? The causes of cross generational sex have been sung every now and then but do people ever open their ears to listen to them or they are too deaf to be affected. According to a report by Masimbi Birwasa, girls appear to have power to negotiate relationship formation and continuance where they can choose the types and number of partners they have and can discontinue a relationship if gift giving ceases.

The too much love for the endless free gifts from the sugar daddies and mummies is the key cause of cross generation sex among the young people. The need for extra standards accessories has driven so many young girls into hooking themselves potential men that can provide for them such goods at the expense of their lives. The causes of cross generation sex are the same all around the world in the west and in the central even the in the south.

Where once in a sexual relationship a girl has no control over sexual intercourse and can neither suggest the use of condoms or any other form of contraceptives to prevent the spread of HIV the man on the other side has full responsibility of what happens.

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Cross generational relationship sexual

Cross generational relationship sexual

Cross generational relationship sexual

Cross generational relationship sexual

Cross generational relationship sexual

Cross generational relationship sexual.

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The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and risk factors for intergenerational IG -sex in females aged 15—19 residing in Barbados. This cross sectional cluster survey was conducted in a 2.

A high proportion of coerced sex was reported at first sexual experience and this was linked to poor condom use. The Caribbean region has the second highest prevalence of HIV worldwide, behind sub-Saharan Africa, and is one of two regions the other being Africa where the proportion of young women living with HIV in the 15—24 age group outnumbers males [ 1 , 2 ].

This signifies a major shift for a disease originally concentrated within the male population. A study of adolescent women aged 15—24 in rural Zimbabwe concluded that each one-year increase in age difference between partners was associated with a 4 percent increase in risk of HIV infection [ 13 ]. These relationships, commonly intergenerational, are linked with reduced condom use [ 4 , 6 ]. Despite high levels of HIV awareness and education in the Caribbean, levels of reported condom use remain inconsistent [ 5 , 20 - 23 ].

As in other parts of the world, the ability to exercise condom use by young females is impacted by entrenched gender stereotypes, cultural attitudes towards sex, asymmetric power distribution within relationships, sexual violence, and unequal access to resources [ 4 , 17 , 24 - 27 ].

Information on IG-sex is quite sparse for the Caribbean. The transactional element that often characterizes these types of relationship is a strong motivating factor, not only through accruing material or social benefits but also by affirmation of self-worth [ 7 , 36 - 38 ].

Indeed, the meaning of transactional sex within a given cultural context remains the subject of debate [ 38 , 39 ]. Our survey therefore sought to measure prevalence of IG-sex as a primary outcome measure in a nationally representative survey, conducted in adolescent females aged 15—19 residing in Barbados.

Determinants examined for IG-sex included transactional sex, age, age at first sex, religious worship, and psycho-social measures of self-esteem, sense of personal power, and peer pressure.

The findings were contrasted with the determinants for sex with any age partner in the same survey population. All eligible girls within each household were selected for inclusion in the survey. All surveys were conducted with informed consent and IRB approval, in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki as revised in The survey was interviewer-administered with Youth Commissioners of the Youth Department selected on the basis of experience in fieldwork and working with young people.

Validated instruments included scales for peer pressure, personal power, and self-esteem [ 40 - 43 ]. A pre-test of the survey instrument was conducted on a similar population to the respondent population with the aim of identifying any weaknesses in questionnaire design and providing practice for fieldworkers.

Double data entry was performed to minimize transcription error. The primary outcome measure was inter-generational sex. The UNAIDS definition of inter-generational relationships also referred to as cross-generational was used to guide the survey [ 8 ]. Transactional sex is the exchange of money, food and other items for sex [ 10 , 14 , 15 , 38 ].

The survey asked respondents if they had ever exchanged sex in exchange for money or gifts, and the question was repeated for same-age and older partners. Several predictors of IG sex were incorporated into the survey, some of which were based on individual items: age at first sexual encounter; age of first sexual partner; religious service attendance; and psychosocial variables of self-esteem, sense of personal power and peer pressure. Such survey designs inflate the standard errors of any point estimates, and a Taylor linearization was used for all variance estimation.

To calculate the age at first sex a life table approach was used, which calculated the cumulative proportion having sex at each year of age up to The technique allowed for those adolescents who had never had sex to be censored at their current age. The average item non-response rate was minimal 5. Respondents were stratified according to age and type of sex engaged in i. Religious worship attendance revealed Respondents were Christian Selected characteristics of Barbadian females aged 15 to 19, stratified by sexual history never had sex, had sex but not inter-generational sex, had inter-generational sex.

In this group of adolescent females aged 15 to 19 at the time of interview, 7. Age at first sex among Barbadian females aged 15— The distribution of age at first sex was generated from censored observations by survival analysis.

The input data were age of the respondent, whether or not they ever had sex and if applicable recalled age at first sex. Overall, As a proportion of females who had ever had sex, IG-sex was reported at the first sexual encounter by Zero percent of girls in the survey reported a younger partner at first sex. Money or gifts were equally likely to be received from a same-age versus an IG partner.

Condom use was strongly related to willingness to have sex. Multiple partnering in sexually active females showed that Sexual history among Barbadian females aged 15 to 19, and selected sexual characteristics among Barbadian females who have had sex at least once. This was due to three participants without known age. A range of demographic, economic, and psycho-social factors were examined for their relationship with the likelihood of having had sex any-age partner in this adolescent female population.

As expected, age was a strong predictor of having had sex, with the odds increasing by 1. Finally, a constellation of psycho-social factors, including self-esteem, sense of personal power, and peer-pressure, were examined for their association with having had sex in this adolescent female population. Given the statistically significant effects of peer pressure and religious service attendance on the probability of having had sex, the relationship between peer pressure and religious service attendance was examined as a post-hoc analysis.

The unadjusted odds ratio of reporting IG-sex rose by 1. Of the psychosocial factors, we could not demonstrate a link between peer-pressure or sense of personal power with IG-sex. However, self-esteem was statistically significantly associated with IG-sex: i. The present study is the first to report prevalence rates of IG-sex among adolescent females in Barbados in a nationally representative survey.

The rate of IG-sex among sexually active females aged 15—19 is The proportion of females who reported IG-sex at their first sexual experience, The high rates of IG-sex were not expected based purely on an assumed link with poverty or lack of education among adolescent girls. In rural Africa, it has been established that poverty, in the context of poor access to education, healthcare, and employment opportunities, urges women into such relationships [ 7 , 17 , 45 , 46 ].

Barbados also has one of the lowest rates of poverty in the Caribbean and Latin America, and has a high literacy rate according to the United Nations Development Program [ 47 , 48 ].

Despite these favorable indicators and a high degree of knowledge of condom use identified in successive KABP surveys, the present survey uncovered evidence of relationship imbalances with age-disparate partnering particularly at sexual debut. Condom use was strikingly related to willingness to have sex, with a distribution of in girls who were either willing:persuaded:forced to have sex at their first sexual encounter. The strongest predictor of IG-sex was the age at first sex.

On the face of it this is later than reported by other studies in the region but apparent discrepancies may be explained by the way age at first sex was reported and by gender differences [ 50 , 54 , 55 ].

Our survey was in line with other Caribbean surveys reporting the same median age indicator [ 5 , 20 ]. Regular participation in religious worship at least weekly was statistically significantly associated with a lower chance of reporting a sexual encounter with any-age partner.

This is consistent with previous reports in the Caribbean [ 63 - 66 ]. The logistic regression analysis showing a statistically significant downward trend in peer pressure index with religious service attendance, and frequency of attendance, supported the notion of an external influence of religion.

However, we could not confirm an association of religious worship with IG sex. Finally, it was noted that a cluster of psycho-social variables - self-esteem, sense of personal power, and peer pressure — were differentially associated with IG-sex vs. The three variables were related to each other and to sex with any-age partner, yet the cluster fractured when applied to IG-sex, with low self-esteem solely associated with IG-sex.

The survey also identified a strong association of multiple partnering with IG-sex. It should be noted, however, that the direction of the associations with multiple partners and self-esteem were not clear: was low self-esteem or multi-partnering a predictor of IG-sex? Or was exposure to IG-sex a cause of low self-esteem or multiple partnering? We acknowledge limitations of this relatively small cross sectional study. The directionality of association cannot be inferred from this cross sectional survey.

For example, low self-esteem might be a reason for early sexual experience or for involvement in IG sex. On the other hand, early sexual experience and involvement in IG sex might be a reason for having low self-esteem. Further qualitative research will be required to tease out causality and motivating factors and how these might differ between intergenerational relationships and those with any-age partner.

We acknowledge that the dividing line can be blurred as to what constitutes transactional sex and what constitutes the normal exchange of gifts in a loving relationship. Hence, we caution against drawing the conclusion that the receipt of money or gifts was necessarily a risk factor for IG-sex, at least based on this survey. We acknowledge that the use of an interviewer may contribute a source of bias in our survey, although we sought to mitigate against this possibility by using experienced youth commissioners and training interviewers not to lead participants in their responses.

Although not a widely reported indicator, a proportion of Together with evidence here and across the Caribbean of widespread sexual coercion at first sex, with concominantly diminished condom use, this brings into sharp focus what protective programmes can be devised, besides risk reduction strategies, to help Caribbean girls re-balance the power in relationships particularly during their first sexual encounter [ 4 , 5 , 49 ].

None of the authors disclose any competing interests from any organization, investments or patents that may in any way gain or lose financially from the publication of this manuscript. None of the authors declare any non-financial competing interests political, personal, religious, ideological, academic, intellectual, commercial or any other in relation to this manuscript.

ND made substantial contributions to the study design, acquisition and analysis of data, as well as intellectual content. CP contributed to conception, design, ethical approval, analysis of data and intellectual content. AK contributed to conception, design and interpretation of data, and intellectual content. KQ contributed to ethical approval, analysis, interpretation of data and critical revision of the manuscript. CC oversaw data collection, quality control and data management for the study.

RP contributed to the conception, design and intellectual content of the study. IRH contributed to the design and led the statistical analysis of the study, as well as critical revision and intellectual content. RCL drafted the manuscript and contributed to the conception, design, and interpretation of the study, analysis of the data, and intellectual content of the manuscript.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance of Mrs. Lourdes Soriano-Rouco for data entry. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. BMC Womens Health. Published online Dec

Cross generational relationship sexual

Cross generational relationship sexual