European colonies in latin america-History of Latin America - The independence of Latin America |

History of Latin America , history of the region from the pre-Columbian period and including colonization by the Spanish and Portuguese beginning in the 15th century, the 19th-century wars of independence, and developments to the end of the 20th century. Latin America is generally understood to consist of the entire continent of South America in addition to Mexico , Central America , and the islands of the Caribbean whose inhabitants speak a Romance language. The peoples of this large area shared the experience of conquest and colonization by the Spaniards and Portuguese from the late 15th through the 18th century as well as movements of independence from Spain and Portugal in the early 19th century. However, there are also enormous differences between them. Not only do the people live in a large number of independent units, but the geography and climate of their countries vary immensely.

European colonies in latin america

British Trade with Spanish America, These religions have African roots but also contain elements of European Catholicism. Inthe papal bull Sublimis Deus definitively recognized that Native Americans possessed souls, thus prohibiting their enslavement, without putting an end to the debate. Portugal's colonization of Brazil, however, was already dictated by a previous treaty between Spain and Portugal known as the Treaty of Tordesillas. The total European colonies in latin america trade to islands in the Caribbean, Brazil, Mexico, and to the United States is estimated to have involved 12 million Africans. The post era is known as the period of European colonies in latin america Columbian Exchange. After difficult conquests of their Teen hunting milf regions, the two movements spread the cause of independence through other territories, finally meeting on the central Pacific coast. In the postwar period, the expansion of coloines became the greatest political issue for both zmerica United States and governments in the region. Countries such as Spain, France and Portugal colonized the region.

Hit list for young adults. The background

The term arose from the connections between the interventions and the preservation of US commercial interests. New York: Routledge First, divergent patterns of colonization may account for differences in the construction of racial groupings, as evidenced in Latin America, which was colonized primarily by the Spanish. The first phase of well-financed European activity in the Americas began with the Atlantic Ocean crossings of Christopher Columbus —sponsored by Spain, whose original attempt was to find a European colonies in latin america route to India and China, known as " the Indies ". New York Times. The Washington Protocols agreement was signed European colonies in latin america February 13, Some claimed that a European colonies in latin america who had rebelled and then been captured could be enslaved nonetheless. US State Department. In Brazil, it began roughly around the time Dilma Rousseffin a tight election, won the presidential electionkicking off the fourth term of the Workers' Party Really big pussies the highest position of government. Journal of Human Genetics. Main article: Uruguayan people. Editorial Kier. In Poole, Deborah ed.

This year the focus region is Latin America.

  • Systematic European colonization began in , when a Spanish expedition headed by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sailed west to find a new trade route to the Far East but inadvertently landed in what came to be known to Europeans as the " New World ".
  • History of Latin America , history of the region from the pre-Columbian period and including colonization by the Spanish and Portuguese beginning in the 15th century, the 19th-century wars of independence, and developments to the end of the 20th century.
  • This year the focus region is Latin America.
  • Latin American countries have often encouraged mixing of different ethnic groups for procreation, and even a small amount of European ancestry could entail significant upwards social mobility.

The region came under control of the crowns of Spain and Portugal, which imposed both Roman Catholicism and their respective languages. Both the Spanish and the Portuguese brought African slaves to their colonies, as laborers, particularly in regions where indigenous populations who could be made to work were absent. In the early nineteenth century nearly all of areas of Spanish America attained independence by armed struggle, with the exceptions of Cuba and Puerto Rico.

Brazil, which had become a monarchy separate from Portugal, became a republic in the late nineteenth century. Political independence from European monarchies did not result in the abolition of black slavery in the new sovereign nations. Political independence resulted in political and economic instability in Spanish America immediately after independence. Great Britain and the United States exercised significant influence in the post-independence era, resulting in a form of neo-colonialism , whereby a country's political sovereignty remained in place, but foreign powers exercised considerable power in the economic sphere.

The idea that a part of the Americas has a cultural or racial affinity with all Romance cultures can be traced back to the s, in particular in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier , who postulated that this part of the Americas were inhabited by people of a " Latin race ," and that it could, therefore, ally itself with " Latin Europe " in a struggle with " Teutonic Europe ," " Anglo-Saxon America " and " Slavic Europe.

In the mid-twentieth century, especially in the United States, there was a trend to occasionally classify all of the territory south of the United States as "Latin America," especially when the discussion focused on its contemporary political and economic relations to the rest of the world, rather than solely on its cultural aspects.

Since, the concept and definitions of Latin American are very modern, going back only to the nineteenth century, it is anachronistic to talk about "a history of Latin America" before the arrival of the Europeans.

Nevertheless, the many and varied cultures that did exist in the pre-Columbian period had a strong and direct influence on the societies that emerged as a result of the conquest, and therefore, they cannot be overlooked. They are introduced in the next section. What is now Latin America has been populated for several millennia, possibly for as long as 30, years. There are many models of migration to the New World.

Precise dating of many of the early civilizations is difficult because there are few text sources. However, highly developed civilizations flourished at various times and places, such as in the Andes and Mesoamerica. Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas in Subsequently, the major sea powers in Europe sent expeditions to the New World to build trade networks and colonies and to convert the native peoples to Christianity.

Spain concentrated on building its empire on the central and southern parts of the Americas allotted to it by the Treaty of Tordesillas , because of presence of large, settled societies like the Aztec , the Inca , the Maya and the Muisca , whose human and material resources it could exploit, and large concentrations of silver and gold. The Portuguese built their empire in Brazil , which fell in their sphere of influence owing to the Treaty of Tordesillas , by developing the land for sugar production since there was a lack of a large, complex society or mineral resources.

In what has come to be known as the Columbian exchange , diseases such as smallpox and measles decimated populations with no immunity. The conquerors and colonists of Latin America also had a major impact on the population of Latin America. The Spanish conquistadors committed savage acts of violence against the natives. Las Casas claimed that the Spaniards made the natives work day and night in mines and would "test the sharpness of their blades" [8] on the natives.

Las Casas estimated that around three million natives died from war, slavery, and overworking. When talking about the cruelty, Las Casas said "Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it.

Because the Spanish were now in power, native culture and religion were forbidden. The Spanish even went as far as burning the Maya Codices like books. These codices contained information about astrology, religion, Gods, and rituals. The Spanish Crown regulated immigration to its overseas colonies, with travelers required to register with the House of Trade in Seville.

Since the crown wished to exclude anyone who was non-Christian Jews, crypto-Jews , and Muslims passing as Christian, travelers' backgrounds were vetted. The ability to regulate the flow of people enabled the Spanish Crown to keep a grip on the religious purity of its overseas empire. The Spanish Crown was rigorous in their attempt to allow only Christians passage to the New World and required proof of religion by way of personal testimonies.

Specific examples of individuals dealing with the Crown allow for an understanding of how religion affected passage into the New World. Individuals had to work within the guidelines of Christianity in order to appeal to the Crown and be granted access to travel.

Once in the New World, religion was still a prevalent issue which had to be considered in everyday life. Many of the laws were based on religious beliefs and traditions and often these laws clashed with the many other cultures throughout colonial Latin America. One of the central clashes was between African and Iberian cultures; this difference in culture resulted in the aggressive prosecution of witches, both African and Iberian, throughout Latin America. A specific example, the trial of Paula de Eguiluz , shows how an appeal to Christianity can help to lessen punishment even in the case of a witch trial.

Paula de Eguiluz was a woman of African descent who was born in Santo Domingo and grew up as a slave, sometime in her youth she learned the trade of witches and was publicly known to be a sorceress.

There needed to be appeals to Christianity and announcements of faith if an individual hoped to lessen the sentence. Learning quickly, Paula correctly "recited the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, the Salve Regina, and the Ten Commandments" before the second hearing of her trial. Finally, in the third hearing of the trial Paula ended her testimony by "ask[ing] Our Lord to forgive [me] for these dreadful sins and errors and requests The Spanish Crown placed a high importance on the preservation of Christianity in Latin America, this preservation of Christianity allowed colonialism to rule Latin America for over three hundred years.

Independence destroyed the old common market that existed under the Spanish Empire after the Bourbon Reforms and created an increased dependence on the financial investment provided by nations which had already begun to industrialize ; therefore, Western European powers, in particular Great Britain and France, and the United States began to play major roles, since the region became economically dependent on these nations.

Independence also created a new, self-consciously "Latin American" ruling class and intelligentsia which at times avoided Spanish and Portuguese models in their quest to reshape their societies. This elite looked towards other Catholic European models—in particular France—for a new Latin American culture, but did not seek input from indigenous peoples. Brazil, in contrast to its Hispanic neighbors, remained a united monarchy and avoided the problem of civil and interstate wars.

Domestic wars were often fights between federalists and centrists who ended up asserted themselves through the military repression of their opponents at the expense of civilian political life.

The new nations inherited the cultural diversity of the colonial era and strived to create a new identity based around the shared European Spanish or Portuguese language and culture. Within each country, however, there were cultural and class divisions that created tension and hurt national unity. For the next few decades there was a long process to create a sense of nationality. In many areas the borders were unstable, since the new states fought wars with each other to gain access to resources, especially in the second half of the nineteenth century.

As a result, Paraguay suffered a demographic collapse : the population went from an estimated , persons in to , in and out of this last population, only around 28, were men. Chile gained control of saltpeter -rich areas, previously controlled by Peru and Bolivia, and Bolivia became a land-locked nation. By mid-century the region also confronted a growing United States, seeking to expand on the North American continent and extend its influence in the hemisphere.

In the s France attempted to indirectly control Mexico. In South America, Brazil consolidated its control of large swaths of the Amazon Basin at the expense of its neighbors. In the s the United States implemented an aggressive policy to defend and expand its political and economic interests in all of Latin America, which culminated in the creation of the Pan-American Conference , the successful completion of the Panama Canal and the United States intervention in the final Cuban war of independence.

The restructuring of colonial economic and political realities resulted in a sizable gap between rich and poor, with landed elites controlling the vast majority of land and resources. Gold mining and fruit growing, in particular, were monopolized by these wealthy landowners.

This led to a society of peasants whose connection to larger political realities remained in thrall to farming and mining magnates. The endemic political instability and the nature of the economy resulted in the emergence of caudillos , military chiefs whose hold on power depended on their military skill and ability to dispense patronage. The political regimes were at least in theory democratic and took the form of either presidential or parliamentary governments. Both were prone to being taken over by a caudillo or an oligarchy.

The political landscape was occupied by conservatives , who believed that the preservation of the old social hierarchies served as the best guarantee of national stability and prosperity, and liberals , who sought to bring about progress by freeing up the economy and individual initiative.

Popular insurrections were often influential and repressed: , were killed during the suppression of a Colombian revolt between and during the Thousand Days' War.

Some states did manage to have some of democracy: Uruguay , and partially Argentina , Chile , Costa Rica and Colombia. The others were clearly oligarchist or authoritarian , although these oligarchs and caudillos sometimes enjoyed support from a majority in the population. All of these regimes sought to maintain Latin America's lucrative position in the world economy as a provider of raw materials. By the start of the century, the United States continued its interventionist attitude, which aimed to directly defend its interests in the region.

This was officially articulated in Theodore Roosevelt 's Big Stick Doctrine , which modified the old Monroe Doctrine , which had simply aimed to deter European intervention in the hemisphere. At the conclusion of the Spanish—American War the new government of Cuba and the United States signed the Platt Amendment in , which authorized the United States to intervene in Cuban affairs when the United States deemed necessary.

In Colombia , United States sought the concession of a territory in Panama to build a much anticipated canal across the isthmus. The Colombian government opposed this, but a Panamanian insurrection provided the United States with an opportunity.

The United States backed Panamanian independence and the new nation granted the concession. These were not the only interventions carried out in the region by the United States. The greatest political upheaval in the second decade of the century took place in Mexico. Francisco I. Madero , a moderate liberal whose aim was to modernize the country while preventing a socialist revolution , launched an election campaign in These events provoked uprisings, which became the start of the Mexican Revolution.

Revolutionary movements were organized and some key leaders appeared: Pancho Villa in the north, Emiliano Zapata in the south, and Madero in Mexico City.

Madero's forces defeated the federal army in early , assumed temporary control of the government and won a second election later on November 6, Madero undertook moderate reforms to implement greater democracy in the political system but failed to satisfy many of the regional leaders in what had become a revolutionary situation.

Madero's failure to address agrarian claims led Zapata to break with Madero and resume the revolution. Other revolutionary leaders such as Villa, Zapata, and Venustiano Carranza continued to militarily oppose the federal government, now under Huerta's control.

Allies Zapata and Villa took Mexico City in March , but found themselves outside of their elements in the capital and withdrew to their respective bastions. This allowed Carranza to assume control of the central government. The Mexican Constitution of , still the current constitution, was proclaimed but initially little enforced. The efforts against the other revolutionary leaders continued. Zapata was assassinated on April 10, Finally in Villa was also assassinated.

Under the Constitution a liberal government is implemented but some of the aspirations of the working and rural classes remained unfulfilled. See also, Agrarian land reform in Mexico.

The prestige of Germany and German culture in Latin America remained high after the war but did not recover to its pre-war levels. Sports became increasingly popular, drawing enthusiastic fans to large stadia. In Brazil, however, sporting and political rivalries slowed progress as opposing factions fought to control of international sport. The Great Depression posed a great challenge to the region.

November 12, England and France attempted to plant colonies in the Americas in the 16th century, but these failed. In Esparza, Marcia; Henry R. See also: Arab diaspora in Colombia. For prehistoric settlement of the Americas, see Settlement of the Americas. Not only is the term erroneous by origin, but it did not correspond to anything in the minds of the indigenous people. El Salvador.

European colonies in latin america

European colonies in latin america. The southern movement in South America


European colonization of the Americas - Wikipedia

Between and all of Latin America except the Spanish colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico slipped out of the hands of the Iberian powers who had ruled the region since the conquest. The rapidity and timing of that dramatic change were the result of a combination of long-building tensions in colonial rule and a series of external events. The reforms imposed by the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century provoked great instability in the relations between the rulers and their colonial subjects in the Americas.

Others did not suffer during the second half of the 18th century; indeed, the gradual loosening of trade restrictions actually benefited some Creoles in Venezuela and certain areas that had moved from the periphery to the centre during the late colonial era. After hundreds of years of proven service to Spain , the American-born elites felt that the Bourbons were now treating them like a recently conquered nation.

In cities throughout the region, Creole frustrations increasingly found expression in ideas derived from the Enlightenment. Imperial prohibitions proved unable to stop the flow of potentially subversive English, French, and North American works into the colonies of Latin America. Creole participants in conspiracies against Portugal and Spain at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century showed familiarity with such European Enlightenment thinkers as Thomas Hobbes , John Locke , Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

The Enlightenment clearly informed the aims of dissident Creoles and inspired some of the later, great leaders of the independence movements across Latin America. Still, these ideas were not, strictly speaking, causes of independence. Creoles selectively adapted rather than simply embraced the thought that had informed revolutions in North America and France.

European diplomatic and military events provided the final catalyst that turned Creole discontent into full-fledged movements for Latin American independence. When the Spanish crown entered into an alliance with France in , it set off a series of developments that opened up economic and political distance between the Iberian countries and their American colonies. By siding with France, Spain pitted itself against England , the dominant sea power of the period, which used its naval forces to reduce and eventually cut communications between Spain and the Americas.

Spanish Americans now found themselves able to trade legally with other colonies, as well as with any neutral countries such as the United States. Occurrences in Europe in the early 19th century created a deep political divide between Spain and its American colonies. The immediate effect of that concession was to send the Portuguese ruler, Prince Regent John , fleeing in British ships to Brazil. Arriving in Rio de Janeiro with some 15, officials, nobles, and other members of his court, John transformed the Brazilian colony into the administrative centre of his empire.

When Napoleon turned on his Spanish allies in , events took a disastrous turn for Spain and its dominion in the Americas. Shortly after Charles had abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand , Napoleon had them both imprisoned. With these figures of legitimate authority in his power, the French ruler tried to shatter Spanish independence. In the process he set off a political crisis that swept across both Spain and its possessions. The Spanish political tradition centred on the figure of the monarch, yet, with Charles and Ferdinand removed from the scene, the hub of all political authority was missing.

Yet the Creoles who participated in the new Cortes were denied equal representation. Having had a taste of freedom during their political and economic isolation from the mother country, Spanish Americans did not easily consent to a reduction of their power and autonomy. The year saw the restoration of Ferdinand to the throne and with it the energetic attempt to reestablish Spanish imperial power in the Americas. Rejecting compromise and reform, Ferdinand resorted to military force to bring wayward Spanish-American regions back into the empire as colonies.

The effort only served to harden the position of Creole rebels. That concession divided and weakened loyalist opposition to independence in the Americas. Many supporters of the crown now had doubts about the monarchy for which they were fighting.

The final victory of Latin American patriots over Spain and the fading loyalist factions began in with the political crisis in Spain. During —10 juntas emerged to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII. In Mexico City and Montevideo caretaker governments were the work of loyal peninsular Spaniards eager to head off Creole threats. Not all of these governments lasted very long; loyalist troops quickly put down Creole-dominated juntas in La Paz and Quito.

By , however, the trend was clear. Transforming these early initiatives into a break with Spanish control required tremendous sacrifice. Over the next decade and a half, Spanish Americans had to defend with arms their movement toward independence. The movements that liberated Spanish South America arose from opposite ends of the continent. After difficult conquests of their home regions, the two movements spread the cause of independence through other territories, finally meeting on the central Pacific coast.

From there, troops under northern generals finally stamped out the last vestiges of loyalist resistance in Peru and Bolivia by In a British expeditionary force captured Buenos Aires. When the Spanish colonial officials proved ineffective against the invasion, a volunteer militia of Creoles and peninsulars organized resistance and pushed the British out. In May prominent Creoles in Buenos Aires, having vied with peninsulars for power in the intervening years, forced the last Spanish viceroy there to consent to a cabildo abierto , an extraordinary open meeting of the municipal council and local notables.

Although shielding itself with a pretense of loyalty to Ferdinand, the junta produced by that session marked the end of Spanish rule in Buenos Aires and its hinterland.

After its revolution of May , the region was the only one to resist reconquest by loyalist troops throughout the period of the independence wars. Central authority proved unstable in the capital city of Buenos Aires. At stake was not only political autonomy per se but also economic interest; the Creole merchants of Buenos Aires, who initially sought the liberalization of colonial restraints on commerce in the region, subsequently tried to maintain their economic dominance over the interior.

A constituent assembly meeting in adopted a flag , anthem, and other symbols of national identity, but the apparent unity disintegrated soon afterward. Distinct interests and long-standing resentment of the viceregal capital led different regions in the south to pursue separate destinies.

By Artigas and this force dominated Uruguay and had allied with other provinces to oppose Buenos Aires. Other expeditions took the cause to Upper Peru , the region that would become Bolivia. After initial victories there, the forces from Buenos Aires retreated, leaving the battle in the hands of local Creole, mestizo, and Indian guerrillas. The main thrust of the southern independence forces met much greater success on the Pacific coast.

After establishing naval dominance in the region, the southern movement made its way northward. Its task, however, was formidable. Having benefited from colonial monopolies and fearful of the kind of social violence that the late 18th-century revolt had threatened, many Peruvian Creoles were not anxious to break with Spain.

Final destruction of loyalist resistance in the highlands required the entrance of northern armies. History of Latin America. Article Media. Info Print Print.

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European colonies in latin america

European colonies in latin america

European colonies in latin america