Peers in sex education-What Works - Child Trends

In , 27 schools were recruited and randomly allocated to a programme of peer-led sex education or to act as control schools. This paper is the first of two focusing on data gathered from these peer educators. There was an increase in confidence about communication and interaction in groups. The paper discusses the methodological difficulties of assessing how involvement in such a programme impacts on peer educators. Interaction within the group is based on equality' Charleston et al.

Peers in sex education

Peers in sex education

Peers in sex education

Peers in sex education

Peers in sex education

Increased awareness about these changes Peers in sex education teenagers is very important. J Health Commun. They can also talk to other students about relationship issues in person. However, one key component of an effective program is to encourage community-centered efforts. Therefore, due to its importance in enhancing public health and country's social and economic Babe redhead, the necessity of sexual trainings has been proposed and Prers as an independent subject at the international conference on population and growth in Cairo in and it has developed ever since. What feels like progress at the state level can be seen as mere catch-up to the policies of other developed aex that require teachers to discuss sex ed as early as kindergarten. Our data indicate that peer educators are different from the Year 9 students to whom they deliver peer-led sex education sessions. Peers in sex education Psychopathol. For example, with topics like sexting, the key messages we want to get across would be on consent and safety and protection against sexual exploitation.

Bizarre xbox game pics. A broader approach

Promotion and Education, 8 2 European Commission, Sweden. Requires instruction to be based on current practice and standards and to include recognizing, avoiding, refusing and reporting sexual abuse and assault. The theory of reasoned action as parallel Peers in sex education satisfaction: towards a dynamic computational model of health behavior. Is peer education the best approach for HIV prevention in schools?. Electrophysiological correlates of emotional scene processing in bipolar disorder. Views Read Edit View history. Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles Pewrs dead external links from March Articles with permanently dead external links. Materials used must be age appropriate, objective and based upon scientific research that is educatoon reviewed and accepted by professional and credentialed experts in the field of sexual health education. Requires comprehensive sex education offered Peers in sex education grades six through 12 to include instruction on both abstinence and contraception for Frre daily porn vids samples prevention of pregnancy and STDs.

In some ways, a peer-led approach to sex education makes sense.

  • Among students who had sex in the three months prior to the survey, 60 percent reported condom use and 23 percent reported birth control pill use during their last sexual encounter.
  • Adolescence is associated with so many changes, and to provide sexual health it is necessary for teenagers to learn enough knowledge about the changes and appropriate health behaviors.

When only 13 states in the nation require sex education to be medically accurate, a lot is left up to interpretation in teenage health literacy. Of course many young students pick up sexual health information from sources other than school — parents, peers, medical professionals, social media and pop culture.

However, public schools are the best opportunity for adolescents to access formal information. Teachers are left to interpret vague legislative guidelines, meaning information might not be accurate or unbiased. The chart below compares the legislative policies of all 50 states, including how they mandate specific aspects of sex education like contraception, abstinence and sexual orientation.

Read the text-only version of these graphics here. Even when sex education is required, state policies still vary widely regarding the inclusion of critical information. Theresa Granger says that comprehensive sex ed goes beyond the biophysical aspects.

Granger said that in order to be comprehensive, sex education programs have to consider the whole student. But many states leave issues like sexual orientation and contraception unaddressed, and some even prohibit public schools from addressing them.

Before the new law went into effect last January , California left sex education as an optional component of health curricula for students in grades 7 through The legislation is part of a nationwide trend — albeit a slow and deliberate one — to transform disjointed sex education laws into comprehensive requirements that lead to better health outcomes for adolescents in public schools, according to Nash, who has tracked sex education policies for over a decade. Two years later it was replaced with today's abstinence-only policy.

In recent years, states have begun to mandate sex ed to include information about life skills for family communication, avoiding coercion and making healthy decisions. According to Nash, including these skills is part of progressive trends across the country, where states have begun to require discussions of sexual consent, harassment and sexual orientation. What feels like progress at the state level can be seen as mere catch-up to the policies of other developed nations that require teachers to discuss sex ed as early as kindergarten.

Granger said school programs need to work on adapting to current health issues and trends that affect the scope of sexual health literacy. Even though the U. Research published in the Journal of Adolescent Health concluded that when sex education included information about contraception, teens had a lower risk of pregnancy than adolescents who received abstinence-only or no sex education. Granger said that in her clinical experience, teens will make a decision to engage in sexual activity whether or not they feel adequately informed, leaving health professionals with an opportunity to promote sexual health literacy.

According to the CDC , teens who identify with LGBTQ communities can be at higher risk of contracting STDs, but safeguarding against transmissions becomes difficult when states prohibit teachers from discussing sexual orientation in class.

Some states expect that sexual orientation will get discussed at home, but the reality is that many students feel they lack the relationships to comfortably ask parents, teachers or peers about health information related to orientation. Though this loophole is disappearing in some states like Tennessee, it allows students to stay engaged in discussions that would otherwise exclude them because of focus on heterosexual relationships.

But discrepancies persist across communities over the responsibility of providing meaningful sex education. One of the main challenges of mandating comprehensive sex education is considering everyone involved in the process: students, their classmates, parents, teachers and legislators.

Teachers feel pressure from parents to deliver just the right amount of information, but students tune out when educators fail to address their individual questions.

So whose responsibility is it to make sure young people have the information they need to make healthy choices? She currently practices in Washington, one of few states that allows minors to seek testing and treatment for STDs , as well as contraception, without consent from a parent or guardian.

Though the conversations can be difficult, she said acknowledging the awkwardness can alleviate the tension around discussions of sexual health for parents and their children. Encouraging openness and compassion helps both parents and teens keep communication flowing with honesty, according to Granger, and is something all family nurse practitioners can do with their patients.

Sometimes the best place to start can be asking teenage patients to talk about what they already know. We need to educate teens whenever and wherever they are. Nursing USC Blog. Final Application Deadline. Next Step.

Is peer education the best approach for HIV prevention in schools?. The diffusion of innovation theory considers an innovation as new information, an attitude, a belief, or a practice that is perceived as novel by an individual and that can be diffused to a particular group. Comments supplied in response to open questions were analysed using a framework developed by two researchers who read all the comments and agreed a system of categorization arising from them. Requires the Department to maintain a public list of curricula that meets requirements of law and to create standards for instructor qualifications. Through the list of Isfahan's high schools two schools were randomly selected as the intervention center and two were selected as the control center.

Peers in sex education

Peers in sex education

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A significantly greater proportion of male than female peer educators showed knowledge change with regard to the question about the time limits for effective use of the emergency contraceptive pill. Table III shows significant changes in attitude for three of the six statements. No significant differences in attitude changes between male and female peer educators were found not shown in Table III.

No significant differences were found between female and male peer educators for the mean score on any of these measures not shown in Table III. A few noted increased awareness and tolerance with respect to particular sexual issues, e. Others seem to have experienced an increase in confidence and awareness of themselves and what they might want from a relationship. Fewer peer educators thought the programme was likely to have an impact on their sexual behaviour.

To some extent this may be a result of peer educators who were not currently sexually active or in relationships finding it difficult to assess the relevance of the question.

Peer educators were asked to provide responses to five statements, indicating their level of confidence about delivering sex education sessions.

No significant differences for changes in confidence between male and female peer educators were found not shown in Table V. In responses to an open question, peer educators made reference to a number of additional ways in which they felt that they had been affected by involvement in the peer education programme. Some mentioned that they felt that it had extended the range of career options open to them, while others observed that taking part in the programme had helped them to make new friends and increased their respect for teachers.

Peer educators were asked how much they agreed or disagreed with five statements on the extent to which involvement in the programme had impacted on their studies, career ambitions and lives outside school.

The recruits to the role of peer educator in the RIPPLE study were very different in demographic terms from the sample of Year 9 students to whom they delivered sex education.

As the peer educators were selected from those who had chosen to stay in school and continue with academic education, it is not surprising that there was a preponderance of high achieving students from better-off, white family backgrounds. The proportionately greater number of females volunteering reflects the findings of other studies of peer-led sex education [e. Phelps et al. The profile of peer educators and the differences between this and that of Year 9 students raises two issues: the effect of peer educators' self-selection on the likelihood of peer educators benefitting from taking part in the programme, and the consequences for programme effectiveness of social distance between peer educators and programme recipients.

This may require developing ways of including as peer educators younger students or those no longer in school. With respect to the second issue of social distance, theories about the source of the effectiveness of peer education approaches emphasize the importance of similarity between peer educators and the target group Reeder et al.

Data from the RIPPLE study presented in this paper suggest that peer educators experience an increase in knowledge regarding the advised time limit for the emergency contraceptive pill and the efficacy of the coil, cap, femidom and emergency contraception as protection against STDs.

While peer educators are unlikely to use the cap, coil or femidom, and this knowledge is unlikely to have direct relevance for their own behaviour, it may well be important in terms of peer educators feeling confident about answering questions from younger students in the peer-led sessions. Interestingly, there was also evidence of changes in sexual attitudes among peer educators, e. Although specific changes in attitudes was not an explicit aim of the training with the peer educators, the increased liberalization in attitudes toward sexual behaviour may be explained by trainers encouraging peer educators to examine their own attitudes and prejudices.

Other research Weiss et al. In the RIPPLE study, there was, however, no change in attitudes towards sex before marriage, using contraception and abortion. Issues around abortion were rarely addressed during the training. Large minorities of peer educators reported increased confidence about getting what they want from sexual relationships and said that participation in the programme had, or would, influence their sexual behaviour.

There are indications in the data that, where increased confidence about managing relationships occurred, this was a result of clarification of attitudes and increased self-awareness and confidence about communicating with partners.

This is an important finding as previous studies have shown increased confidence in negotiating safer sex with a partner to be associated with safer sex practices Rosenthal et al. The engagement of peer educators with the programme was highly variable. The significantly greater perceived impact on female peer educators may reflect their greater interest in pursuing careers in caring professions, working with children and teaching. This paper has focused on the short-term outcomes for peer educators of involvement in a peer education programme, and their perceptions of its impact on their sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviour.

The absence of a comparative control group of Year 12 students and a longer-term follow-up makes it impossible confidently to attribute outcomes to the effects of programme participation. As noted earlier, the methodological and practical problems with achieving either of these are considerable. These missing data also make it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the likely impact of involvement in a peer education programme on all students.

Comparison between the demographic characteristics of those who completed the post-programme survey and the those who did not would enable some conclusions to be drawn about the possible biases in findings as a result of missing data.

Unfortunately this comparison could not be carried out as a proportion of those completing the post-programme survey did not complete the pre-programme survey and demographic questions were only asked in this first survey. Increasing the completeness of data might be achieved in a number of ways. For example, experience from this study indicates that adopting an ad hoc system for leaving questionnaires for peer educators absent on the day chosen for questionnaire administration with teachers or other peer educators does not result in many additional respondents.

Future research of this kind should consider repeating demographic measures at each survey and gather the views of those who withdraw from the peer education programme before delivering the sex education sessions, as their experiences may be quite different. The topic of peer education is currently of considerable policy relevance, especially as applied to young people's risk-taking behaviour.

This paper, reporting data from a large multi-centre randomized controlled trial, has added to our knowledge of the processes involved in mounting, delivering and evaluating a peer education programme. The analysis of some of the data collected from peer educators has addressed some of the questions raised by previous studies and highlighted a number of issues for further research.

There was also evidence of a significant increase in general confidence, particularly around communication and interaction in groups.

We found considerable practical problems with maintaining high levels of data collection from our samples of peer educators, largely as a result of factors at play in individual schools.

Any research activity will always have a lesser priority than school curricula and time tables, and in this sense evaluating school-based peer education faces the same challenges as any research conducted in schools.

Our data indicate that peer educators are different from the Year 9 students to whom they deliver peer-led sex education sessions. They may also be different from their same age peers.

Important questions remain to be addressed about why these young people volunteer to peer education programmes, and how others, non-white, male and less academic, might be included in future programmes. We would like to thank the schools and all the young people attending them for their support of the project. Our thanks, too, to the reviewers of an earlier draft of this paper for their helpful comments and suggestions.

The study is funded by the Medical Research Council. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Peer-led sex education—characteristics of peer educators and their perceptions of the impact on them of participation in a peer education programme Vicki Strange.

Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Simon Forrest. Ann Oakley. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Table I. This approach is a slight amendment of that used in Johnson et al. Johnson et al. Data for are not available by school the national average points score for was Open in new tab. Table II. Are the following true or false? Table III. Table IV. Table V. Campbell, D. In Bennett, C. Academic Press, New York, pp. Charleston, S. Department for Education and Employment, London.

Elder, J. Fox, J. Harden, A. Johnson, A. Blackwell Scientific Press, London. Massey, R. Newitt, K. The majority of adolescents experience some level of emotional, behavioral, and social difficulties 2 , 5. A peer is a person whose has equal standing with another as in age, background, social status, and interests. They, in fact, provide opportunities for personal relationships, social behaviors, and a sense of belonging. Therefore, peer education is considered as a health promotion strategy in adolescents 8 , 9.

Studies have also evaluated peer education as a mechanism to promote behavior and attitude modification It is, hence, a system of delivering knowledge that promotes social skills As the important role of peers in quality of life of adolescents warrants further research on peer education, the present study reviewed the peer education approach in adolescents. A comprehensive search was performed through PubMed and Google scholar using the combinations of the following keywords: adolescent, peer, peer group, peer education, peer intervention, peer educator.

All published data from to were then included in this review. Peer education is known as sharing of information and experiences among individuals with something in common 16 , It aims to assist young people in developing the knowledge, attitudes, and skills that are necessary for positive behavior modification through the establishment of accessible and inexpensive preventive and psychosocial support.

Peer education programs mainly focus on harm reduction information, prevention, and early intervention. The youth have accepted peer education as a preferred strategy to reach unreachable populations such as sex workers and to approach and discuss topics that are insufficiently addressed or considered taboo within other contexts 17 — Sexual health peer education has been found to significantly increase the use of modern contraceptives and methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections STIs Different methods of peer education have been proposed.

The audience can be reached through a variety of interactive strategies such as small group presentations, role plays, or games Formal delivery of peer education in highly structured settings such as class teaching in schools is also possible. Other methods may include informal tutoring in unstructured settings during the course of everyday interactions or individual discussions and counseling. Various methods are adopted based on the intended outcomes of the project e.

A peer educator is a member of a peer group that receives special training and information and tries to sustain positive behavior change among the group members 18 , Peer educators can in fact act as role models of attitude and behavior for their peers Peer educators should receive adequate training enabling them to understand the purpose of the program, be good listeners, provide encouragement, motivation, and support healthy decisions and behaviors.

They should also know other sources of information and counseling so as to refer other peers to appropriate help 5. Identification and selection of peer educators with sufficient confidence, technical competency, compassion, and communication skills who are accepted by other peers are crucial aspects of program success Borgia et al.

Peer educators should allow that emotions, feelings, attitudes, and beliefs to be expressed and discussed openly They should also be aware of the usefulness of jokes and humor in establishing relationships with the target group Nevertheless, educational outcomes will widely depend on the relationship with peers Sharing socioeconomic conditions with program participants, peer educators are able to make educational material accessible and credible to participants and hence increase the efficacy of a peer education program A variety of financial, intellectual, and emotional reasons leads to the attractiveness of youth peer education.

In addition, the participation of unpaid volunteers makes peer education inexpensive As a broadly accepted effective behavioral change strategy, peer education relies on several well-known behavioral theories:. The social learning theory asserts that some individuals function as role models of human behavior due to their aptitude for stimulating behavior changes in other individuals The diffusion of innovation theory considers an innovation as new information, an attitude, a belief, or a practice that is perceived as novel by an individual and that can be diffused to a particular group.

The theory of participatory education has also played a key role in the development of peer education. According to participatory or empo-werment models of education, powerlessness at the community or group level along with socioeconomic conditions caused by the lack of power are major risk factors for poor health 7. The social inoculation theory postulates that people may adopt unhealthy behaviors under social pressures Other available theories the role theory, health belief model, and transtheoretical model imply partnership, ownership, empowerment, and reinforcement as the critical principles of peer education.

Since such programs seek to produce behavior change in a peer group the unit of change by the help of a peer educator or facilitator the agent of change 34 , they may simultaneously empower the educator and the target group by creating a sense of collective action. In non-hierarchical structure, the management structure of peer education comprises two distinct parallel roles 15 , i.

Peer education programs require careful planning 37 , identification and training of peer educators, and follow-up evaluations. An introductory meeting to familiarize the peer educators with the concept of peer education and the training needs;. Training the educators with communication, facilitation, research, and evaluation skills;. Providing access to formal knowledge The period between the training and the delivery of knowledge to the target group should not be longer than a few weeks After the initial training, peer educators will undoubtedly require continuous supervision and opportunities to give feedback about the program Youth peer education programs, whose numbers are growing throughout the world, are extensively used to promote reproductive health.

These programs require appropriate technical frameworks, particularly training and supervision, to satisfy the needs of the young and adolescent volunteers A study in 10 African, Asian, and Latin American countries indicated that peer education interventions can be effective strategies in prevention of risky behaviors and increasing self-esteem and psychosocial aspects Similarly, a systematic review suggested peer learning as an efficient method in improving the standing of health science students in clinical placements Besides, other researchers have identified school-based HIV education as the basis of youth-focused HIV prevention interventions Studies have found the mean score of knowledge regarding breast self-examination to increase in students who receive peer education about breast cancer prevention through the learning of self-examination 29 , Rhee et al.

In addition, the peer education program designed by Karayurt et al. Peer mentorship has also been broadly and successfully used to treat alcohol and substance abuse disorders We briefly reviewed the impacts of the peer education approach on adolescents. Peer education, which is considered as an effective tool in promoting healthy behaviors among adolescents 53 , is a social process affected by the settings, organizational context, key personnel, and the values and expectations of the participants.

It requires proper preparation, training, supervision, and evaluation. We found various studies suggesting the success of different peer education programs. We hope that this paper will serve as a starting point in the application of this method in health promotion. Ethical issues including plagiarism, data falsification, double publication or submission have been completely observed by the authors.

We would like to express our appreciation to everyone involved in this project. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Iran J Public Health. Fatemeh Abdi 1. Masoumeh Simbar 2. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jun 25; Accepted Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: Adolescent, Peers, Peer education. Peer educator A peer educator is a member of a peer group that receives special training and information and tries to sustain positive behavior change among the group members 18 , Theories of Peer Education As a broadly accepted effective behavioral change strategy, peer education relies on several well-known behavioral theories: The social learning theory asserts that some individuals function as role models of human behavior due to their aptitude for stimulating behavior changes in other individuals Open in a separate window.

Conclusion We briefly reviewed the impacts of the peer education approach on adolescents. Ethical Considerations Ethical issues including plagiarism, data falsification, double publication or submission have been completely observed by the authors. Acknowledgements We would like to express our appreciation to everyone involved in this project.

An inventory for assessment of the health needs of Iranian female adolescents. East Mediterr Health J , 18 8 — Journal of Behavioral Sciences , 1 2 — Puberty health: knowledge, attitude and practice of the adolescent girls in Tehran, Iran.

Payesh , 8 1 29 — The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis. BMC Public Health , 12 Adolescent peer education in formal and non-formal setting.

Letting Teens Teach Each Other Sex Ed Works - VICE

Stacey, MD. This document reflects emerging clinical and scientific advances as of the date issued and is subject to change. The information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. Data have shown that not all programs are equally effective for all ages, races and ethnicities, socioeconomic groups, and geographic areas. Studies have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education programs reduce the rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors eg, number of partners and unprotected intercourse , sexually transmitted infections, and adolescent pregnancy.

One key component of an effective program is encouraging community-centered efforts. In addition to counseling and service provision to individual adolescent patients, obstetrician—gynecologists can serve parents and communities by supporting and assisting sexuality education.

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists the College makes the following recommendations and conclusions:. Comprehensive sexuality education should be medically accurate, evidence-based, and age-appropriate, and should include the benefits of delaying sexual intercourse, while also providing information about normal reproductive development, contraception including long-acting reversible contraception methods to prevent unintended pregnancies, as well as barrier protection to prevent STIs see Box 1.

They also should include state-specific legal ramifications of sexual behavior and the growing risks of sharing information online 1. Additionally, programs should cover the variations in sexual expression, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, anal sex, mutual masturbation, as well as texting and virtual sex 2. The American Academy of Pediatrics provides an overview of the published research on evidence-based sexual and reproductive health education 3.

Current sexuality education programs vary widely in the accuracy of content, emphasis, and effectiveness. Evaluations of biological outcomes of sexuality education programs, such as pregnancy rates and STIs, are expensive and complex, and they can be unreliable, often relying on self-reported behaviors to measure effectiveness.

Between and , there was a strong emphasis in sexuality education on abstinence until marriage because of federal and state funding bans on comprehensive information about contraception. Many states have requirements regarding topics that must be included in sex education programs. In addition to counseling and service provision to adolescent patients, obstetrician—gynecologists can serve parents and communities by supporting and assisting sexuality education by developing evidence-based curricula that focus on clear health goals eg, the prevention of pregnancy and STIs, including HIV and providing health care that focuses on optimizing sexual and reproductive health and development, including, for example, education about and administration of the human papillomavirus vaccine 6.

Additionally, obstetrician—gynecologists can encourage patients to engage in positive behaviors to achieve their health goals and discourage unhealthy relationships and behaviors that put patients at high risk of pregnancy and STIs. When a responsible adult communicates about sexual topics with adolescents, there is evidence of delayed sexual initiation and increased birth control and condom use 9.

Community and school-based programs also are an important facet of sexuality education. However, one key component of an effective program is to encourage community-centered efforts. Innovative, multicomponent, community-wide initiatives that use evidence-based adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions and reproductive health services including inclusion of moderately or highly effective contraceptive methods, such as long-acting reversible contraception have dramatically reduced pregnancy rates among African American and Hispanic individuals aged 15—19 years old Although formal sex education varies in content across schools, studies have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education programs reduce the rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors eg, number of partners and unprotected intercourse , STIs, and adolescent pregnancy However, despite concerns raised by some involved in health education, a study of four select abstinence-only education programs reported no increase in the risk of adolescent pregnancy, STIs, or the rates of adolescent sexual activity compared with students in a control group Adolescents with physical and cognitive disabilities often are considered to be asexual and, thus, have been excluded from sexuality education However, they have concerns regarding sexuality similar to those of their peers without disabilities.

Their knowledge of anatomy and development, sexuality, contraception, and STIs including HIV , should be on par with their peers, and they should be included in sexuality programs through their schools and communities. Comprehensive sexuality programs should consider the benefits and pitfalls of social media. There is a growing interest among adolescents to access sexual health information online that is written in language they can understand, that is in an interactive format, and that is presented in an entertaining manner 16 , The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has identified additional resources on topics related to this document that may be helpful for ob-gyns, other health care providers, and patients.

You may view these resources at www. These resources are for information only and are not meant to be comprehensive. The resources may change without notice. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, posted on the Internet, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher.

Comprehensive sexuality education. Committee Opinion No. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol ;e— Women's Health Care Physicians. Recommendations and Conclusions The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists the College makes the following recommendations and conclusions: Comprehensive sexuality education should be medically accurate, evidence-based, and age-appropriate, and should include the benefits of delaying sexual intercourse, while also providing information about normal reproductive development, contraception including long-acting reversible contraception methods to prevent unintended pregnancies, as well as barrier protection to prevent sexually transmitted infections STIs.

Obstetrician—gynecologists can serve parents and communities by supporting and assisting sexuality education, by developing evidence-based curricula that focus on clear health goals eg, the prevention of pregnancy and STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] , and providing health care that focuses on optimizing sexual and reproductive health and development. Current Quality of Sexuality Education Current sexuality education programs vary widely in the accuracy of content, emphasis, and effectiveness.

The Role of the Obstetrician—Gynecologist In addition to counseling and service provision to adolescent patients, obstetrician—gynecologists can serve parents and communities by supporting and assisting sexuality education by developing evidence-based curricula that focus on clear health goals eg, the prevention of pregnancy and STIs, including HIV and providing health care that focuses on optimizing sexual and reproductive health and development, including, for example, education about and administration of the human papillomavirus vaccine 6.

Reaching Special Populations Adolescents with physical and cognitive disabilities often are considered to be asexual and, thus, have been excluded from sexuality education References Concerns regarding social media and health issues in adolescents and young adults.

Obstet Gynecol ;e62—5. Obstet Gynecol ;— Sexuality education for children and adolescents. Pediatrics ; 2 :e Public opinion on sex education in US schools.

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med ;—6. State policies on sex education in schools. Retrieved June 27, Obstet Gynecol ;e38— Emerging answers new research findings on programs to reduce teen pregnancy.

Retrieved July 13, Educating teenagers about sex in the United States. Reduced disparities in birth rates among teens aged 15—19 years—United States, — and — The effectiveness of group-based comprehensive risk-reduction and abstinence education interventions to prevent or reduce the risk of adolescent pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus, and sexually transmitted infections: two systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Community Preventive Services Task Force.

Am J Prev Med ;— Impacts of abstinence education on teen sexual activity, risk of pregnancy, and risk of sexually transmitted diseases. J Policy Anal Manage ;— Adolescents with special needs: clinical challenges in reproductive health care. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ;—6. Sexuality education: emerging trends in evidence and practice. J Adolesc Health ;S15— Social media, social life: how teens view their digital lives. Am J Health Educ ;— Community education for family planning in the U.

Am J Prev Med ;S— Social media-delivered sexual health intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

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Peers in sex education

Peers in sex education

Peers in sex education