Oral gesar-Thangka Paintings of the Tibetan Oral Epic King Gesar - AbeBooks

Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? King Gesar is an oral epic widely sung and performed today by the broad masses of Tibetans.

Oral gesar

Oral gesar

Oral gesar

Oral gesar

Oral gesar

Fucking sleep, Silke Mah Burnaby, BC, Canada. Those in the rank of elders pha a khu. Rolf A. Add to Watchlist Unwatch. For the mountains in the upper valleys, he says, there are hunting laws gsar khrims. Search Shop. Boston, Oral gesar Shambhala Publications. Couverture rigide. Despite the age of the tradition, the oldest extant text of the epic is actually the Mongolian woodblock print Oral gesar by the Kangxi Emperor of Qing China in

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Why Travel with Us? According to Samten KarmayGesar arose as the hero of a society still thinly permeated by Buddhism, and the earlier myths associate him gesag pre-Buddhist beliefs like the mountain cult. Gone are the original frescoes depicting 30 generals of the State of Ling, 80 heroes who had Oral gesar themselves during the wars gedar pacification, 13 Buddhist guardians and the Flemish eye in nylon rope consorts of Oral gesar. Subscribe to Drugs. Gesaar, Massachusetts: Princeton University Press. Dehli: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. His gesaf is often shown as white in tangkas scroll paintings but in texts it is described as "red. The versions of the Gesar epic collected in Bhutan, in publication sinceare Lesbien mothers to run into some 31 volumes. Whether it is highland barley or butter, it is the King Gesar, the greatest work of Tibetan literatureis easily the longest epic in the world, which has also appeared in ballads among the Mongols and Tus. Stephanie Wu This article addresses such questions as well as providing a translation from Tibetan of a Oral gesar of Grags-pa, and a full translation of his narration of the birth of the epic hero.

Tibetan Thangka Painting.

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  • The word saga is the Norse word for a song or recitation detailing the acts of founding members of a lineage or society, including the circumstances of those events.

FitzHerbert George. Law and the Gesar Epic. Droit et Bouddhisme. Principle and Practice in Pre-modern Tibet pp. To take a mobile oral-traditional epic as the basis for a discussion of law inevitably invites some rather impressionistic observations. So it should be stated at the outset that the discussion here is essentially literary in nature.

It is a general exploration of questions related to the perception and symbolism of law, and an illumination of its associated oratorical conventions, based on epic-related sources. This article does not address the actual practice of law in specific times or places.

Nor does it relate to any particular period of Tibetan history since the literary sources drawn upon range from the fifteenth-century to the contemporary. Nevertheless, the association between Gesar and law alluded to in some seminal Tibetan texts, and the prevalence of the theme of law within the oral-literary Gesar epic tradition, suggest that the Gesar-related material can provide valuable insights into popular perceptions of law in Tibetan society.

The relevance of this epic-related material to the issue of law is based on three basic premises. First, that Ling Gesar is often presented— both within the epic and in sources extraneous to it— as a symbol of law, trim khrims , and ideal rulership. And especially in those areas— such as Golok Mgo log in the north east of the Tibetan plateau— where patterns of clan, tribal or communitybased raiding and retaliation as epitomised in the epic continued to be common right up until the advent of communist rule in the s, and beyond.

A final proviso is that the sources drawn upon here are predominantly of an eastern Tibetan provenance. Law and the Epic among Tibetan Nomads. Religious law is said to be based on the fundamental law of. It is used, in the context of the epic, to refer to the rules enjoined as part of membership in a practising Buddhist community. Secular law or royal law concerns the rights and duties of laymen based on social status; the division of land and tax, and grazing rights and so on.

In expanding on his notion of country law, Ekvall says it is. As a result, explains Ekvall,. In lieu of the content of reprisal— violent retaliation and the infliction of injury— there had been substituted a set of value payments or indemnifications; and in application, direct unilateral action had been changed into the processes of mediation whereby claims were met by agreed-upon indemnification; reprisal was forestalled; and peace was— somewhat precariously— preserved.

Across the Tibetan cultural world, he says, the law as actually practised was an amalgam of these three systems religious law, royal law, and the modified system. But what is of particular interest for our present discussion is the. Revenge is a recipe for social breakdown and fragmentation— a reality that was close to home for Tibetan nomads in the relatively stateless societies of early-twentieth-century eastern Tibet. It creates a society in a constant state of uncertainty and insecurity in which pasturelands need constant patrolling to protect the herds, womenfolk, and property.

All of this is exemplified by Hor Ling I in which, after endless rounds of retaliatory raiding, the society of Ling is left weak and exposed. In this way the Gesar epic serves as a cautionary tale, as a reminder of the costs of the primitive law of reprisal.

As we will see in sources cited below, Gesar is himself often considered a symbol of just or ideal rulership and of the law itself. The epic thus also functions in tribal assemblies, for example as an idealised mirror held up to society.

It can serve as a citable basis on which to ground not just values and norms, but also local laws and customs, or the principles of duty and responsibility. Our way of talking and way of thinking, everything is influenced by Gesar, especially in the highland pastoralist areas. The significance of legends, epic, proverbs and so on in furnishing normative models and points of reference in the practice of Tibetan law is reasonably wellattested.

Such legends— whether about the kings of the Tibetan imperial period or Gesar, depending on region— can serve as a discursive resource in the negotiation of normative standards of behaviour, shared values, and in resolving conflict in the presence of an authoritative figure.

For Tibetan historians, this theme— of legends providing guidance in the practical management of society— dates back to the pre-literate and pre-Buddhist period.

This is encapsulated, for example, in the saying that before the advent of Buddhism in Tibet,. The Gesar epic tradition has particular resonance with these ancient and modern customs of legal rhetoric, not just because of its content, but also because of its style. This perceived relevance of the Gesar epic to traditional Tibetan customs of law at a variety of levels concerning both its content and its style , finds expression in a few key classical literary sources.

The first is the Rlangs po ti bse ru, 18 the mytho-historical charter-text of the Pakmodru Phag mo gru dynasty which ruled central Tibet from the mid-fourteenth century. In eastern Tibet, he meets Ling Gesar, who gives him various gifts and takes him as his lama, whereupon the sage is given safe passage across eastern Tibet by all the local deities of the region, headed by Pomra Rma rgyal spom ra, the great mountain deity of north eastern Tibet, and an important locus of authority in the epic.

After some time, Gesar appears there, apparently on a horse-trading mission in China. Notwithstanding that the text in which this legend is contained is said to have been a. It is on the basis of this early textual reference22 that many Tibetan historians, starting with the Fifth Dalai Lama, have written Gesar into their histories of Tibet in the eleventh century. The other early text which refers to Ling Gesar in a law-related manner is the classical Tibetan legal text known as the Mirror of the Two Laws.

This mention of Gesar in the Mirror of the Two Laws comes in a proverb cited within a section dealing with the appropriate compensation for killing people of differing social status. In particular, it is used to illustrate the regional diversity of legal precedents in customary law concerning the compensation due for the killing of a king. His captors demanded his weight in gold as a ransom for his return.

This legend, whether or not historically factual, 28 is not therefore about the compensation to be paid for the. The relationship between the couplet on Gesar and its associated legend is somewhat obscure. Sumpa Kenpo thus explains a saying with similar import by reference to the famous.

By killing the wolf Danma incurred a perpetual debt for his kinsmen. Gesar surprises the minister, and to evade death, the latter offers him all his land and goods, an inventory of which, it is said, is kept at Ling.

That both couplets in this quatrain encode condensed versions of local legends illustrates a basic point: that the precedents found in legends of oral tradition, were considered a useful resource in Tibetan legal practices, and that such legends could be inherently mobile and flexible, especially in the hands of skilled orators. A further point that this reference in the Mirror of the Two Laws illustrates for our purposes here, is that the lore encoded by legends of Gesar, in particular, could be used as points of reference for the assertion of legal rights and dues.

Looking across various entextualised episodes33 of the epic, we find references to all five components of the amalgam of Tibetan legal systems outlined by Ekvall: religious law, royal law, traditional law, Mongol codes and concepts, and Chinese legal forms and punishments. The epic also gives colourful expression to the Tibetan custom of using proverbs as an important resource in argumentation and advocacy; it reflects the importance of status and social order in Tibetan conceptions of justice; and it also gives voice to the traditional resistance of Tibetan pastoralists to externally-imposed legal codes and conceptions ownership over shared resources, such as water and pasture.

They are also often the subject of. Internalising External Threats. There is also an association of the two forms of law with India and China respectively:. Religious law, established by the King of India up in the west, Is like a silken knot, Its truth can never be destroyed. The presentation of India and China as the lands of religious and secular law respectively is a very common trope in the eastern Tibetan epic tradition.

Obviously, this resonates with the scheme of the Four Directions that is a typical feature of Tibetan historiographic traditions concerning the period of the Tibetan empire and before. Regarding the settlement of disputes, the ethos that is particularly prominent in the Gesar epic is the key distinction between internal and external disputes.

For external threats, the law of reprisal as discussed by Ekvall clearly holds sway. This version of the saying is translated from Hor Ling I : In these exchanges, we can see that in the heroic society of Ling, retaliation and revenge against neighbouring tribes is a fundamental currency. But for internal. This principle is reflected in a saying one finds in both Hor Ling.

If you are on the inside, [ we the clan are] like a handful of soft silk thread, But if you are on the outside, [ we are] like a plain filled with sharp spears.

When an enemy comes, our spears are raised together, When a friend comes, every last morsel is shared at the blade of a knife. The importance of the distinction between internal and external conflict is reflected also in the model of conquest or tribal agrandissement that the epic cycle celebrates.

The pattern we see is that the victory of Ling over its rivals is not simply about the acquisition of land, cattle, horses, loot, and trading levies. Nor is it about subjugating its rivals. Rather, it is driven by the prerogative to internalize external threats.

The classic example of this is Shenpa Merutse Shan pa Rme ru rtse , formerly a minister of Hor, who, after its defeat, becomes a prominent hero of Ling, counted among the Thirty Warriors. Mediation and Recourse to Authoritative Legal Texts. One does, however, find proverbs about reaching agreement as the basis of stability, and the importance of third-parties. For example:. When three men are in perfect agreement, The laws of the land will be balanced.

When the three hearthstones are arranged correctly, The copper vessel will be stable. Trotung Khro thung , in a frenzy of agitation, demands the girl.

When all the Lingpas have gathered, it will be decided in the time-honoured tradition, by the casting of dice. She will be mine!

There are the Thirteen Edicts and Statutes khrims yig zhal lce bcu gsum ; there are the Sixteen Principles of Good Behaviour mi spyod [ sic] gtsang ma bcu drug , The Giving of Guarantees and Entreaty Payments.

In this way order was restored sgrig byas pa. The practice of giving entreaty payments in support of petitions and as guarantees of future goodwill is also alluded to in the epic. Crumpling into a heap, Trotung begs him again and again. He gathers up the gold dust, filling a small box, The Law of the Assembly. The supra-tribe tsho chen is made up of potentially countless clans, tribal lineages, fraternities, settlement communities, brigades and other groupings rus, rgyud, mched, sde, shog kha, khri skor, ru shog, khyu tshogs.

The primary significance of the emblems of law— whether the drum, the conch, the spear, the axe, the banner, or the texts— is that custodianship of these emblems confers on the bearer the right to convene such assemblies. Naturally enough, the greater the appeal of the summons, the greater the authority of its resolutions, and the greater the prestige of its chief and elders. But an assembly is useless if it cannot achieve unanimity, which is typically based on loyalty to a supreme lord.

So, it is obedience to the summons of an assembly and willingness to cooperate with its agenda, which constitutes the first and perhaps last article of the epic law, as such. Different tribes or communities respond to different summons, and thus are subject to a different law. The purpose of the assembly for the Lingpas is to achieve public consensus.

In the epic, the ideal of leadership is grounded in the values of honesty, integrity, and justice, all covered by the Tibetan adjective drang po which literally means. These conventional bases of authority honesty, experience, bravery are then hugely augmented, and indeed trumped, by the charismatic authority of Gesar himself, based on his supramundane qualities and achievements. For Gesar, like the emperors of the Tibetan imperial period, is a divinely-ordained prince sent from the upper realm of gods.

Email this Article. On the contrary, the word "epic" has a noble, even divine, sense. Religions of Tibet in Practice. The versions of the Gesar epic collected in Bhutan, in publication since , are projected to run into some 31 volumes. Latest Articles.

Oral gesar

Oral gesar. Drug Status

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Thangka Paintings of the Tibetan Oral Epic King Gesar | eBay

Every night, Palmo, a year-old herdswoman from Durbud Village in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, sings episodes from the epic of King Gesar to put her 8-month-old daughter to sleep. According to local legends, the village was the battlefield where King Gesar and his invincible army vanquished the enemies and brought help to local people.

She added that a wide variety of festive activities and religious rituals related to King Gesar are held in the village throughout the year, such as epic singing contests and horse racing. In , Durbud Village was recognized as a national-level King Gesar culture protection zone, thanks to its well-preserved oral tradition of the epic.

A large King Gesar museum, which displays the epic's history and introduces the epic singers, was also set up in the village. The first floor of the museum has become the place where villagers gather to chant the fascinating stories of the mythical demigod king. Chinese president meets The Elders delegation. China, New Zealand agree to deepen comprehensive strategic partnership.

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Oral gesar

Oral gesar