Clitoris circumsition-Why the cutting of a woman's clitoris is so prevalent in Indonesia

When Saffiatu Sillah was growing up in the west African nation of Sierra Leone, her clitoris was cut off in a ritual circumcision. She was left with scar tissue that caused pain during sex and agony during childbirth. After her second child was born, Sillah, a pharmacist then living in Philadelphia, searched for medical help. But she was willing to try. Yet despite the extraordinary need for appropriate medical care, there has been little rigorous research on how surgeons can relieve enduring physical harm or improve sexual sensation.

Clitoris circumsition

Clitoris circumsition

Clitoris circumsition

Clitoris circumsition

Clitoris circumsition

Further information: Female Tight cunt fucked mutilation in the United States. The morning of her operation, dressed in a black-and-gold abaya, she swept cirrcumsition air Clitorjs orange-polished fingernails as she described how American men she dated after her divorce dumped her when they learned she had been cut. They Clitoris circumsition how to cope in those circumstances. After a little time everybody looked Clitoris circumsition see if the cut was okay, and after that, they started brewing some tea. According to a systematic review there is little high-quality information available on the psychological effects of FGM. Clitoris circumsition would come Clitois on her. One third reported reduced sexual feelings. Dimension to Debate on Genital Mutilation". The United Nations has declared female genital mutilation a human rights violation, and yet, the act is not banned in India.

Simsons fucking marge. Procedures

Gender-matched interpretation was provided, and interpretation was phrase-by-phrase with time allowed for cultural annotation. Unexcised Kikuyu women irugu were outcasts. Miller, Michael; Moneti, Francesca. Mary's Hospitalbelieved that masturbation, or "unnatural irritation" of the clitoris, Human heredity cummings hysteriaspinal irritation, fits, idiocy, mania and death. For circusition, the wound edges are closed with thorns or sutures, and the thighs may be bound Clitoris circumsition to fuse the labial Clitoris circumsition, with a matchstick or twig inserted to ensure a patent vaginal foramen. Allen, Peter Lewis This may lead to uterine and rectal prolapse, and vulval lymphedema. Halim AA. Joint Evaluation. Until the s FGM was widely known in Clitoris circumsition as female circumcision, implying an equivalence in severity with male circumcision. The Hidden Face of Eve.

Female genital mutilation FGM , also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision , [a] is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.

  • Although some consider it a human rights infringement, others view it as an integral part of cultures in which it remained unchallenged for centuries.
  • This site is dedicated to the surgical removal of the clitoral hood prepuce with the result that the clitoral glans the tip of the clitoris is left permanently exposed.
  • His intention?

In many settings, health care providers perform FGM due to the erroneous belief that the procedure is safer when medicalized 1. WHO strongly urges health professionals not to perform such procedures. FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women.

It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of the rights of children. Deinfibulation refers to the practice of cutting open the sealed vaginal opening in a woman who has been infibulated, which is often necessary for improving health and well-being as well as to allow intercourse or to facilitate childbirth.

FGM has no health benefits, and it harms girls and women in many ways. It involves removing and damaging healthy and normal female genital tissue, and interferes with the natural functions of girls' and women's bodies. Generally speaking, risks increase with increasing severity of the procedure. FGM is therefore a global concern. The reasons why female genital mutilations are performed vary from one region to another as well as over time, and include a mix of sociocultural factors within families and communities.

Since , great efforts have been made to counteract FGM, through research, work within communities, and changes in public policy. Progress at international, national and sub-national levels includes:. Research shows that, if practicing communities themselves decide to abandon FGM, the practice can be eliminated very rapidly. This statement provided evidence collected over the previous decade about the practice of FGM.

In , WHO published a "Global strategy to stop health care providers from performing female genital mutilation" in collaboration with other key UN agencies and international organizations. In December , the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on the elimination of female genital mutilation. Building on a previous report from , in UNICEF launched an updated report documenting the prevalence of FGM in 30 countries, as well as beliefs, attitudes, trends, and programmatic and policy responses to the practice globally.

The guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of the best available evidence on health interventions for women living with FGM. To ensure the effective implementation of the guidelines, WHO is developing tools for front-line health-care workers to improve knowledge, attitudes, and skills of health care providers in preventing and managing the complications of FGM.

Infographics Infographics on female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation 31 January Key facts Female genital mutilation FGM includes procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The procedure has no health benefits for girls and women. Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, as well as complications in childbirth and increased risk of newborn deaths.

FGM is a violation of the human rights of girls and women. Female genital mutilation FGM comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. Related Female genital mutilation and other harmful practices Health risks of female genital mutilation FGM Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation Eliminating female genital mutilation.

Working towards zero tolerance for female genital mutilation in Sudan 6 February

Soccer star Alex Morgan is having a big year. Nnaemeka, Obioma In the earlier years of married life this form of prostitution is possibly not too harmful. For example, in the northeastern regions of Ethiopia and Kenya, which share a border with Somalia, the Somali people practise FGM at around the same rate as they do in Somalia. Elchalal, Uriel; Ben-Ami, B. Reisel, Dan; Creighton, Sarah M.

Clitoris circumsition

Clitoris circumsition

Clitoris circumsition. The Female Condom Is the Next Big Thing in Safe Sex


Female genital mutilation or cutting |

Many international groups are concerned about FGC, which is practiced extensively in parts of Africa and the Middle East and is linked to infections, infertility, and childbirth complications. Organizations such as the United Nations have campaigned against the practice, calling for its abolition as a matter of global health and human rights. But despite a decades-old movement against it, FGC rates in some countries haven't budged.

So what can foreign activists—as well as locals who oppose female genital cutting—do to curb the practice? She also challenges some common misconceptions around FGC, like the belief that it is forced on women by men. I thought African girls were held down and butchered against their will, but some of them voluntarily and joyfully partake in the ritual. I thought communities would surely abandon the practice once they learned of its negative health consequences.

Shell-Duncan recently joined a five-year research project, led by the Population Council , whose goal is reducing female genital cutting by at least 30 percent across 10 countries over five years. I spoke with her about how activists, policymakers, and everyday people can better understand FGC so that they can avoid alienating the communities they aim to help. I was doing research on anemia, iron deficiency. I started asking questions about what people in the community perceived were the major health problems.

I talked to men and women throughout the community, and they listed a whole host of things: malaria, men talked a lot about diseases in their animals. I was so confused, like, what does that mean?

I was completely confused. And they realized that not only had I gotten married without being circumcised, but that I had obviously delivered children without being circumcised, which in their culture was unthinkable. These women were my very good friends, and they were covering up their faces to not show how repulsed they were by the idea of somebody being uncircumcised and delivering a baby.

They were, you know, revolted. Khazan: Well, wait, what did you say? What are you doing? Shell-Duncan: On the other hand, these are women who live in a drought-prone region of Africa. Living in circumstances that are so dire. They know how to cope in those circumstances. And honestly, I have a Ph. Would I know how to raise a kid under those kinds of conditions? Shell-Duncan: Different ethnic groups do it differently.

Among the Rendille, they do it as part of the first part of the ceremony. The wedding ceremony spans years. This is a nomadic tribe. They live in huts that are made from branches. And what they do is they take apart the hut of the mother and father and they divide the branches.

They get green branches. They divide them in half—half the old branches, half the new. And they build two new huts. It symbolizes two new homes, sort of a fusion of the two. And then they have a ceremony where the bride is transferred to the new home. The morning part of that is the circumcision part. They cut off the clitoris and the inner labia.

They range from Type 1, in which only the clitoris is cut, to Type 3, infibulation, in which the labia are stitched together. Shell-Duncan: The girl was Which was young by their standards. Women were going to a dispensary the day before and they were getting antibiotics and an anti-tetanus injection. They would get a clean disposable razor. Before they had a traditional knife that was used, but they stopped using that, and now every bride has her own clean razor.

Shell-Duncan: Well, they invited me. They brought in the bride, and they brought in the circumciser, a woman, and a couple of other women followed. And I just sat on the edge in this tiny hut, and watched what was going on. It all happened pretty quickly.

They had one woman working, and other women held each leg. The circumciser came in and lifted this cloth that the woman had been wearing draped around her. The circumciser kneeled, and did basically this.

And it was done. They poured some water with herbs boiled in it over her body. They moved her up to this little loft. After a little time everybody looked to see if the cut was okay, and after that, they started brewing some tea. One woman went outside and announced the circumcision was successful. People started roasting lamb, meat. A little while later, warriors came over to the hut and started singing and dancing praises to the bride and the groom.

This went on for hours. There was this complete celebration. I was completely perplexed. Shell-Duncan: No, no, she was proud. She sat there stoic and looked up at a focal point. It shows that you have the maturity to face the hardship that is coming as a woman. A little bit later, I excused myself and ran back to the hut where I was staying, and I travel with a little medical first-aid bag.

I raced back to the hut and gave her these codeine tablets. Does it cure malaria? The bride came out and joined the dancing. She was joyful. I didn't understand the joy about this. But later I remembered that when I gave birth to my first son, I had a very difficult delivery. After my son was born, everyone in the delivery room popped a bottle of champagne.

I felt like I had been hit by a Mack truck and they were toasting champagne. This girl had become a woman. When I went back two years later, the girl came to me and gave the pills back. Khazan: Yeah.

So, wow. I guess the biggest question for me is what do they see as the benefit? Are there any benefits? And it is in some other cultures. Also, for us, we believe that bodies are natural and perfect. Not everybody believes that. Some people in Africa believe that bodies are androgynous and that all male and female bodies contain male and female parts.

And for a female, the covering of the clitoris is a male part. The idea of becoming a wholly formed female includes being cut—having any part that is somewhat male-like removed from the body.

Khazan: That actually makes logical sense to me. We have shaving your legs, or wearing makeup. We have weird things that we do that are less painful. If we look at the data across Africa, the support for the practice is stronger among women than among men. So, the patriarchy argument is just not a simple one. Female circumcision is part of demarcating insider and outsider status. Are you part of this group of elder women who have power in their society? Things like infant death, hemorrhage.

There was a study that was done in Gambia—they were looking at the chances of having sexually transmitted infections and pelvic inflammatory disease, and it was positive, but of course, you can't prove that being circumcised is causal.

Shell-Duncan: One of the things that is important to understand about it is that people see the costs and benefits. It is certainly a cost, but the benefits are immediate. For a Rendille woman, are you going to be able to give legitimate birth? Or elsewhere, are you going to be a proper Muslim? Are you going to have your sexual desire attenuated and be a virgin until marriage?

These are huge considerations, and so when you tip the balance and think about that, the benefits outweigh the costs.

Clitoris circumsition

Clitoris circumsition

Clitoris circumsition