Pro lesbian action-LGBT social movements - Wikipedia

Its criteria for candidates — men or women, gay or straight — are that they support equal rights for LGBT women and their families, and that they also back sexual and reproductive rights for women and access to health care. At this point, LPAC has yet to finalize a list of candidates the group will endorse; the focus, Schmidt said, will be on state-level races and initiatives as well as House and Senate races. But it does have a few star backers that will help it raise funds. One top backer of the group is Laura Ricketts, a top Obama donor who is gay and is a co-owner of the Chicago Cubs. Ricketts is the daughter of Nebraska billionaire Joe Ricketts, who bankrolls another super PAC that earlier this year considered but ultimately rejected funding an ad campaign attacking President Barack Obama over his ties to the Rev.

Pro lesbian action

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Pro lesbian action

Ina number of people in Sweden called in sick with a Pro lesbian action of being lesbia, in protest of homosexuality being classified as an illness. Retrieved August 21, Archived from the original on 28 February Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, One of the values of the movement was gay pride. Eleven years ago, Sandy Sachs and Robin Gans, owners of the Los Angeles lesbian club Girl Bar, came to the tournament, were bored Pro lesbian action, and saw an opportunity. Essentially, she established Pro lesbian action organization which put forth an amendment to the laws of the county which resulted in the firing of many public Rezek vanity wall mirror teachers on the suspicion that they were homosexual. Some younger activists, seeing gay and lesbian as increasingly normative kesbian politically conservative, began lesbina queer as a defiant statement of all sexual minorities and gender variant people—just as the earlier liberationists had done with gay.

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Social movements may focus on equal rights, such as the s movement for marriage equality, or they may focus on liberation, as in the gay liberation movement of the s and s.

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Social movements may focus on equal rights, such as the s movement for marriage equality, or they may focus on liberation, as in the gay liberation movement of the s and s. Earlier movements focused on self-help and self-acceptance, such as the homophile movement of the s.

Although there is not a primary or an overarching central organization that represents all LGBT people and their interests, numerous LGBT rights organizations are active worldwide. The earliest organizations to support LGBT rights were formed in the 19th century. Sociologist Mary Bernstein writes: "For the lesbian and gay movement, then, cultural goals include but are not limited to challenging dominant constructions of masculinity and femininity , homophobia , and the primacy of the gendered heterosexual nuclear family heteronormativity.

Political goals include changing laws and policies in order to gain new rights , benefits, and protections from harm. As with other social movements, there is also conflict within and between LGBT movements, especially about strategies for change and debates over exactly who represents the constituency of these movements, and this also applies to changing education.

Leaders of the lesbian and gay movement of the s, 80s and 90s often attempted to hide masculine lesbians, feminine gay men, transgender people, and bisexuals from the public eye, creating internal divisions within LGBT communities. For example, transgender people found that other members of the community were not understanding to their own, individual, specific needs and would instead make ignorant assumptions, and this can cause health risks. LGBT movements have often adopted a kind of identity politics that sees gay, bisexual, and transgender people as a fixed class of people; a minority group or groups, and this is very common among LGBT communities.

Such attempts are often based in religious beliefs that perceive gay, lesbian, and bisexual activity as immoral. However, others within LGBT movements have criticised identity politics as limited and flawed, elements of the queer movement have argued that the categories of gay and lesbian are restrictive, and attempted to deconstruct those categories, which are seen to "reinforce rather than challenge a cultural system that will always mark the nonheterosexual as inferior.

After the French Revolution the anticlerical feeling in Catholic countries coupled with the liberalizing effect of the Napoleonic Code made it possible to sweep away sodomy laws. However, in Protestant countries, where the church was less severe, there was no general reaction against statutes that were religious in origin. As a result, many of those countries retained their statutes on sodomy until late in the 20th century. In eighteenth - and nineteenth-century Europe , same-sex sexual behaviour and cross-dressing were widely considered to be socially unacceptable, and were serious crimes under sodomy and sumptuary laws.

There were, however, some exceptions. For example, in the 17th century cross dressing was common in plays, as evident in the content of many of William Shakespeare 's plays and by the actors in actual performance since female roles in Elizabethan theater were always performed by males, usually prepubescent boys.

Thomas Cannon wrote what may be the earliest published defense of homosexuality in English, Ancient and Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify'd Although only fragments of his work have survived, it was a humorous anthology of homosexual advocacy, written with an obvious enthusiasm for its subject. Social reformer Jeremy Bentham wrote the first known argument for homosexual law reform in England around , at a time when the legal penalty for buggery was death by hanging.

His advocacy stemmed from his utilitarian philosophy , in which the morality of an action is determined by the net consequence of that action on human well-being. He argued that homosexuality was a victimless crime , and therefore not deserving of social approbation or criminal charges.

He regarded popular negative attitudes against homosexuality as an irrational prejudice, fanned and perpetuated by religious teachings. With the introduction of the Napoleonic Code in , the Duchy of Warsaw also decriminalized homosexuality.

In , an anonymous English-language writer wrote a poetic defense of Captain Nicholas Nicholls, who had been sentenced to death in London for sodomy:. Whence spring these inclinations, rank and strong? And harming no one, wherefore call them wrong? From the s, social reformers began to defend homosexuality, but due to the controversial nature of their advocacy, kept their identities secret.

In , Ives created and founded the first homosexual rights group, the Order of Chaeronea. John Addington Symonds was a poet and an early advocate of male love. In , he wrote A Problem in Greek Ethics , a work of what would later be called " gay history. Chaddock for introducing "homosexual" into the English language in , Symonds had already used the word in A Problem in Greek Ethics. By the end of his life, Symonds' homosexuality had become an open secret in Victorian literary and cultural circles.

In particular, Symonds' memoirs, written over a four-year period, from to , form the one of the earliest known works of self-conscious homosexual autobiography in English. The recently decoded autobiographies of Anne Lister are an earlier example in English.

Another friend of Ives was the English socialist poet Edward Carpenter. Carpenter thought that homosexuality was an innate and natural human characteristic and that it should not be regarded as a sin or a criminal offence.

In the s, Carpenter began a concerted effort to campaign against discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation , possibly in response to the recent death of Symonds, whom he viewed as his campaigning inspiration.

Scottish anarchist John Henry Mackay also wrote in defense of same-sex love and androgyny. English sexologist Havelock Ellis wrote the first objective scientific study of homosexuality in , in which he treated it as a neutral sexual condition. Called Sexual Inversion it was first printed in German and then translated into English a year later. In the book, Ellis argued that same-sex relationships could not be characterized as a pathology or a crime and that its importance rose above the arbitrary restrictions imposed by society.

The book was so controversial at the time that one bookseller was charged in court for holding copies of the work. It is claimed that Ellis coined the term 'homosexual', but in fact he disliked the word due to its conflation of Greek and Latin. These early proponents of LGBT rights, such as Carpenter, were often aligned with a broader socio-political movement known as ' free love '; a critique of Victorian sexual morality and the traditional institutions of family and marriage that were seen to enslave women.

Some advocates of free love in the early 20th century, including Russian anarchist and feminist Emma Goldman , also spoke in defence of same-sex love and challenged repressive legislation. In he formed the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee campaign publicly against the notorious law " Paragraph ", which made sex between men illegal.

Adolf Brand later broke away from the group, disagreeing with Hirschfeld's medical view of the " intermediate sex ", seeing male-male sex as merely an aspect of manly virility and male social bonding. The book Sind es Frauen? Women only began to join the previously male-dominated sexual reform movement around when the German government tried to expand Paragraph to outlaw sex between women.

The institute conducted an enormous amount of research, saw thousands of transgender and homosexual clients at consultations, and championed a broad range of sexual reforms including sex education, contraception and women's rights. However, the gains made in Germany would soon be drastically reversed with the rise of Nazism , and the institute and its library were destroyed in The Swiss journal Der Kreis was the only part of the movement to continue through the Nazi era.

This step was part of a larger project of freeing sexual relationships and expanding women's rights — including legalising abortion, granting divorce on demand, equal rights for women, and attempts to socialise housework. During Stalin's era, however, USSR reverted all these progressive measures — re-criminalizing homosexuality and imprisoning gay men and banning abortion. Its plot centers on Stephen Gordon, a woman who identifies herself as an invert after reading Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis , and lives within the homosexual subculture of Paris.

In the United States, several secret or semi-secret groups were formed explicitly to advance the rights of homosexuals as early as the turn of the 20th century, but little is known about them. Immediately following World War II , a number of homosexual rights groups came into being or were revived across the Western world , in Britain, France, Germany, the Netherlands, the Scandinavian countries and the United States.

These groups usually preferred the term homophile to homosexual , emphasizing love over sex. The homophile movement began in the late s with groups in the Netherlands and Denmark, and continued throughout the s and s with groups in Sweden, Norway, the United States, France , Britain and elsewhere. ONE, Inc. S, [32] was bankrolled by the wealthy transsexual man Reed Erickson. The homophile movement lobbied to establish a prominent influence in political systems of social acceptability.

Radicals of the s would later disparage the homophile groups for being assimilationist. Any demonstrations were orderly and polite. S, [34] and a national organization had been formed, but they were largely ignored by the media. A gay march held in front of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, according to some historians, marked the beginning of the modern gay rights movement. Meanwhile, in San Francisco, the LGBT youth organization Vanguard was formed by Adrian Ravarour to demonstrate for equality, and Vanguard members protested for equal rights during the months of April—July , followed by the August Compton's riot, where transgender street prostitutes in the poor neighborhood of Tenderloin rioted against police harassment at a popular all-night restaurant, Gene Compton's Cafeteria.

All but James Adair were in favour of this and, contrary to some medical and psychiatric witnesses' evidence at that time, found that "homosexuality cannot legitimately be regarded as a disease, because in many cases it is the only symptom and is compatible with full mental health in other respects. When passed, The Sexual Offences Act decriminalised homosexual acts between two men over 21 years of age in private in England and Wales. In bisexual activist Robert A. Martin a. In Columbia University officially recognized this group, thus making them the first college in the United States to officially recognize a gay student group.

Due to this, bisexuals began to be included in the facility's programs for the first time. The American Psychiatric Association removed "homosexuality" from the diagnostics manual of mental illness in This new radicalism is often attributed to the Stonewall riots of , when a group of gay men, lesbians, and drag queens at a bar in New York resisted a police raid. Their use of the word gay represented a new unapologetic defiance—as an antonym for straight "respectable sexual behaviour" , it encompassed a range of non-normative sexualities and sought ultimately to free the bisexual potential in everyone, rendering obsolete the categories of homosexual and heterosexual.

Chapters of the GLF were established across the U. The Gay Liberation movement overall, like the gay community generally and historically, has had varying degrees of gender nonconformity and assimilationist platforms among its members. Early marches by the Mattachine society and Daughters of Bilitis stressed looking "respectable" and mainstream, and after the Stonewall Uprising the Mattachine Society posted a sign in the window of the club calling for peace.

Gender nonconformity has always been a primary way of signaling homosexuality and bisexuality, and by the late s and mainstream fashion was increasingly incorporating what by the s would be considered "unisex" fashions. Johnson and Sylvia Rivera , formed the group Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries STAR , which focused on providing support for gay prisoners, housing for homeless gay youth and street people, especially other young "street queens".

Bisexual activist Brenda Howard is known as the "Mother of Pride" for her work in coordinating the march, which occurred in in New York City, and she also originated the idea for a week-long series of events around Pride Day which became the genesis of the annual LGBT Pride celebrations that are now held around the world every June.

Martin aka Donny the Punk and gay activist L. Craig Schoonmaker are credited with popularizing the word "Pride" to describe these festivities. One of the values of the movement was gay pride. Los Angeles held a big parade on the first Gay Pride Day. Smaller demonstrations were held in San Francisco, Chicago, and Boston.

Bob Mellors and Aubrey Walter had seen the effect of the GLF in the United States and created a parallel movement based on revolutionary politics and alternative lifestyle. By , the UK GLF was recognized as a political movement in the national press, holding weekly meetings of to people.

Groups of GLF members in drag invaded and spontaneously kissed each other; others released mice , sounded horns, and unveiled banners, and a contingent dressed as workmen obtained access to the basement and shut off the lights.

Easter saw the Gay Lib annual conference held in the Guild of Undergraduates Union students union building at the University of Birmingham.

By , internal disagreements had led to the movement's splintering. The Leicester group founded by Jeff Martin was noted for its involvement in the setting up of the local "Gayline", which is still active today and has received funding from the National Lottery.

They also carried out a high-profile campaign against the local paper, the Leicester Mercury , which refused to advertise Gayline's services at the time. In , Sweden became the first country in the world to allow people who were transsexual by legislation to surgically change their sex and provide free hormone replacement therapy.

Sweden also permitted the age of consent for same-sex partners to be at age 15, making it equal to heterosexual couples. The Statement, which may have been "the first public declaration of the bisexual movement" and "was certainly the first statement on bisexuality issued by an American religious assembly," appeared in the Quaker Friends Journal and The Advocate in

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