Tweet this! Yet for an atheist to make our ranking of the 50 top atheists in the world—given in ascending order—it is not enough merely to deny that God exists. To make our list, someone has to be very sure of him- or herself. No mere agnostics will do. Celebrity is another requirement.
But I've discovered nature can be quite different than ideology. His research on ant societies led to the publication of his seminal work, Sociobiology: The New Synthesisin The pope thought Drinan too liberal—and militatn his place he got Frank, a gay Jewish atheist. The Journal of Asian Studies. Sincethe Gallup American bee journal vintage has tracked opinions about whether marriages between same-sex couples should be forusm by the law. Descriptive statistics are provided in Table Atheeists of the online supplement. Bawer called for full inclusion of gays in mainstream society and criticized atheeists he considered an unrepresentative but highly visible gay subculture that equated homosexuality with promiscuity, hedonism, political correctness or stereotypes like being effeminate or "different" in general. In Study 4a, we investigated Gay militant atheists forums effects of religiosity, resistance to change, opposition to equality, and sexual prejudice on opposition to same-sex marriage. There were no clergy at the ceremony because Milosevic was an avowed atheist. Yet, a second source of criticism, among libertarians is that the IGF writers do not advocate election law reforms that would Gay militant atheists forums the Libertarian Party to freely compete Gay militant atheists forums votes in elections.
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No longer needed or tolerated, this misunderstood paragon of Enlightenment-core values began a journey that brought him to the worst possible destination: the Republican Party.
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Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In Studies 1 and 2, we discovered that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage was mediated by explicit sexual prejudice. In Study 3, we saw that the mediating effect of sexual prejudice was linked to political conservatism. In the current research program, we investigated whether religious opposition to same-sex marriage has ideological roots in the desire to maintain the societal status quo.
Hodges , , resistance lingers in the United States and elsewhere. Therefore, the psychological processes underlying religious and ideological opposition to same-sex marriage are of considerable theoretical and practical interest.
Specifically, we examine a model in which religious opposition to same-sex marriage is, at least in part, accounted for by sexual prejudice and motivated by conservative tendencies to defend the status quo. Since , the Gallup organization has tracked opinions about whether marriages between same-sex couples should be recognized by the law. Despite a general increase in support, many religious groups have actively opposed the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States.
Christian arguments against same-sex marriage tend to be based upon Biblical passages such as those discussing the fate of Sodom Genesis Much as some religious groups played a key role in the civil rights movement, there are denominations that now support full legal and religious marriage equality for gay and lesbian couples. The United Church of Christ is one example. In arguing for marriage equality, they refer to the Christian values of love, peace, and compassion.
As federal legalization of same-sex marriage became increasingly probable in the United States, the debate on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT rights shifted from a focus on discrimination by the government to discrimination by the private sector Johnson, , with religious arguments dominating the rhetoric of those opposing same-sex marriage. New York legalized same-sex marriage in but not before special provisions were made for religious protections within the text of the law.
These protections were intended to make it clear that the bill does not require anyone to perform or solemnize marriages against their will. Statements such as these make an explicit connection between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage, and they demonstrate the deeply personal manner in which the issue is played out. Whereas religious opponents may see their objections to same-sex marriage as principled and legitimate, others see it as a human rights issue and may interpret opposition as a form of sexual prejudice and discrimination.
Empirically speaking, religious opposition to same-sex marriage could stem from various sources. Given that religion offers believers a well-defined moral framework that entails specific attitudes toward social groups, beliefs, and behaviors, it is possible that attitudes toward same-sex marriage simply reflect religious proscriptions.
On the other hand, opposition may also be driven by sexual prejudice, which is defined as antipathy toward individuals and groups based on their sexual orientation Herek, An initial aim of this research program was to investigate whether a general aversion to gay men and lesbian women helps explain the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage.
To our knowledge, however, no studies have investigated the hypothesis that religious opposition to same-sex marriage is attributable, at least in part, to sexual prejudice Hypothesis 1. Therefore, a second aim of our research was to investigate whether the effect of religiosity on opposition to same-sex marriage would be mediated by the endorsement of conservative ideology.
Because previous research has demonstrated a robust connection between political conservatism and system justification Jost et al. According to a prominent model of political ideology, the two core aspects of conservatism are resistance to change and opposition to equality Jost, ; Jost et al. Ideological self-placement on a single left—right dimension is correlated with prejudice toward nonnormative groups, such as gay men and lesbian women e.
Nevertheless, somewhat distinct processes are thought to underlie resistance to change and opposition to equality. Right-wing authoritarianism Altemeyer, —which taps into resistance to change Jost et al. The link between religiosity and resistance to change is fairly evident, insofar as religions tend to value traditionalism and maintenance of the societal status quo i. Thus, we reasoned that resistance to change would be a stronger mediator of the effect of religiosity on opposition to same-sex marriage, in comparison with opposition to equality Hypothesis 3.
In this research program, we sought to elucidate the effects of religiosity, political conservatism, and sexual prejudice in accounting for opposition to same-sex marriage. To do this, we needed to establish that religiosity is indeed positively related to opposition to same-sex marriage, and to understand the extent to which this relationship is explained by sexual prejudice.
Therefore, in Studies 1 and 2, we addressed the question of whether the effect of religiosity on opposition to same-sex marriage is mediated by sexual prejudice. In Studies 4a and 4b, we distinguished between the two core components of conservative ideology, resistance to change and opposition to equality, and tested whether the effect of the former is stronger than that of the latter.
Some of the direct relationships among these variables have been explored in prior studies, but our work contributes significantly to the psychological literature by investigating these variables simultaneously in an integrated theoretical model that enables us to explore indirect relationships as well.
In Study 1, we conducted a bootstrapping analysis for simple mediation models Hayes, , Model 4 ; in Study 2, we conducted a bootstrapping analysis for parallel multiple mediation models Hayes, , Model 4 ; and in Studies 3, 4a, and 4b we conducted a bootstrapping analysis for serial multiple mediation models Hayes, , Model 6. It is important to note that, given the observational nature of our research, it is impossible to infer causality. Comparing our model with an alternative in which the order of variables is altered does not provide strong evidence that one model should be preferred over the other Thoemmes, This assumption is in line with existing theory and research as well as common sense.
We hasten to add, in any case, that it is empirically possible for our mediation hypotheses to be contradicted by the data. Participants were asked to indicate their religiosity on a scale ranging from 1 not at all religious to 7 extremely religious. Participants indicated their agreement with eight statements on a scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree.
This subscale did not include any items related to same-sex marriage. Descriptive statistics are provided in Table A in the online supplement. To investigate our first hypothesis—that sexual prejudice would mediate the effect of religiosity on opposition to same-sex marriage—we conducted a mediation analysis see Table B in the online supplement for regression estimates.
As depicted in Figure 1 , religiosity indirectly influenced opposition to same-sex marriage through its effect on sexual prejudice. These findings support the first hypothesis. Study 1 demonstrated that religiosity predicted opposition to same-sex marriage through sexual prejudice, as hypothesized.
At the same time, the fact that religiosity remained significant when sexual prejudice was entered into the model suggests that it also exerted an independent effect on opposition to same-sex marriage. That is, if religious people identify and self-categorize as heterosexuals or believe that truly religious people are heterosexual, their opposition to same-sex marriage could simply reflect the denial of privileges to members of an outgroup.
Participants indicated their religiosity on a continuum ranging from 1 not at all religious to 7 extremely religious. Sexual prejudice was measured using a modified version of the eight-item scale administered in Study 1 ATGM; Herek, Descriptive statistics are provided in Table C of the online supplement.
As depicted in Figure 2 , religiosity indirectly influenced willingness to protest through its effect on sexual prejudice. In a conceptual replication of Study 1 with a measure of behavioral intention, we obtained additional support in Study 2 for the hypothesis that religiosity would predict willingness to protest against same-sex marriage, and that this relationship would be mediated by sexual prejudice.
Based on system justification theory Jost et al. Our reasoning was consistent with prior research, indicating that religiosity and conservatism are associated with system justification Jost et al. In Study 3, which was conducted in the United States, we investigated the hypothesis that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage would be serially mediated by the endorsement of conservative ideology and sexual prejudice.
A plurality of participants identified as Christian, Catholic, or Protestant Of the rest, Participants completed measures of religiosity, political ideology, sexual prejudice, and opposition to same-sex marriage, and provided demographic information. The scales were administered in a random order. We excluded one item that mentioned same-sex marriage. Descriptive statistics are provided in Table E of the online supplement. We hypothesized that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage would be mediated by political conservatism and sexual prejudice in serial fashion.
Therefore, we conducted a serial multiple mediation model, which allows for the simultaneous testing of the indirect effect through both mediators and each mediator by itself i. To determine whether such an analysis would be appropriate, we first computed the partial correlation between ideology and sexual prejudice, adjusting for religiosity.
This correlation reflects the association between the proposed mediators that remains after accounting for the effects of the independent variable on both Hayes, Thus, we proceeded to investigate the serial multiple mediation effect see Table H in the online supplement. These findings suggest that only sexual prejudice was an independent mediator of the effect of religiosity on opposition to same-sex marriage.
Serial multiple mediator model predicting opposition to same-sex marriage from religiosity, political ideology, and sexual prejudice Study 3. Thus, conservatism did significantly mediate the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage to the extent that it predicted sexual prejudice. Study 3, then, provided evidence for the hypothesis that conservative preferences to maintain the status quo underlie religious opposition to same-sex marriage.
Political conservatism involves two distinct but correlated components, namely, resistance to change and opposition to equality Jost, ; Jost et al. In Study 4a, we investigated the effects of religiosity, resistance to change, opposition to equality, and sexual prejudice on opposition to same-sex marriage. In total, Participants completed a survey that included measures of religiosity, resistance to change, opposition to equality, sexual prejudice, and opposition to same-sex marriage.
Descriptive statistics are provided in Table G of the online supplement. The partial correlation between resistance to change and sexual prejudice remained significant after adjusting for religiosity, pr M1M2. We first conducted a mediation analysis including resistance to change and sexual prejudice as mediators, adjusting for opposition to equality see Table H in the online supplement.
Serial multiple mediator model predicting opposition to same-sex marriage from religiosity, resistance to change, and sexual prejudice, adjusting for opposition to equality Study 4a.
We conducted a similar mediation analysis including opposition to equality and sexual prejudice as mediators, this time adjusting for resistance to change.
Study 4a supported the expectation that conservative preferences to maintain the status quo would help account for relations among religiosity, sexual prejudice, and opposition to same-sex marriage. Especially in light of the number of variables included in the model, we deemed it important to replicate these findings in an independent sample of participants. In this case, however, we employed a measure of opposition to social rather than economic equality.
One third We administered a measure of opposition to equality consisting of eight items from the Social Dominance Orientation scale Pratto et al. Descriptive statistics are provided in Table L of the online supplement. We therefore proceeded with the fitting of serial multiple mediation models.
We first conducted a mediation analysis including resistance to change and sexual prejudice as mediators, adjusting for opposition to equality see Table M in the online supplement. Serial multiple mediator model predicting opposition to same-sex marriage from religiosity, resistance to change, and sexual prejudice, adjusting for opposition to equality Study 4b.
Study 4b was a nearly identical replication of Study 4a. In light of current debates regarding the expansion of gay rights in several countries, including the United States, France, Ireland, Russia, and Australia, this research presents a timely investigation into the motivational underpinnings of religious opposition to same-sex marriage.
In five studies conducted in two countries, we obtained support for a theoretical model in which religious opposition to same-sex marriage is linked to sexual prejudice and conservative preferences to maintain the status quo. This research helps address the question of why people might oppose same-sex marriage at the level of social, personality, and political psychology. In Study 1, we demonstrated that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage was mediated by explicit sexual prejudice.
In Study 2, we replicated these findings using a measure of behavioral intention, namely willingness to protest against same-sex marriage. In Study 2, we observed that identification with the heterosexual ingroup also predicted willingness to protest against same-sex marriage, but it failed to mediate the relationship between religiosity and willingness to protest.
It employed the powers given to it by the CPSU Central Committee at the congress to dictate orders to schools, universities, the Soviet Armed Forces , the trade unions, the Komsomol, the Vladimir Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization , the Soviet press, and other institutions for the purpose of its antireligious campaign. Penguin, How adulterers are being stoned to death, gay people are being hanged, and other barbaric acts are being commited — all in the name of an entity whose basic existence can't be demonstrated. The League of Militant Atheists attempted to "control and exploit the Proletarian Freethinkers," a group founded by socialists in , in order to diminish the influence of religion, particularly Catholic Christianity, in Central and Eastern Europe. Like x 2. Unless explicitly noted otherwise, all content licensed as indicated by RationalWiki:Copyrights. ME Sharpe inc.
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September 10, at pm Last Post : Belacqua. September 6, at pm Last Post : brewer. The League printed masses of antireligious literature. The monthly Bezbozhnik , grew from 28, in to , in , dropped to , after , climbed to , in and went down , in The Bezbozhnik u stanka consistently ran 50,, copies per issue, however, it changed from a monthly to a fortnightly in and continued to produce until it was closed in Yaroslavsky's scholarly monthly for the LMG central committee 'Antireligioznik' The Antireligious appeared in , and reached 17, circulation in it was a page publication , 30, in and 27, in It was reduced to 64 pages in , and produced between 40, and 45, in before it was finally cancelled.
The League also printed antireligious textbooks. An 'Antireligious Textbook for Peasants' was produced between and , with a circulation of 18, for the first edition and , for the sixth. A similar textbook for urban people was created in , followed by a universal amalgamated textbook.
LMG member, I. Shpitsberg began publishing a scholarly journal in the late s called Ateist. In it was swallowed up by Antireligioznik. From to , a journal for peasants named Derevenskii bezbozhnik The Rural Godless was produced.
It was alleged to be so "popular" among the peasantry that it was 'read to tatters', and contradictorily it ceased publication in The supposedly popular nature of the atheist propaganda was also contradicted by cases of reported lynchings of antireligious propagandists and murder of LMG agitators.
The non-serial LMG literature grew from 12 million printed pages in to million in making up at least million pieces of printed antirelgious literature. A textbook produced by the LMG in admitted the existence of sincere believers among the intellectuals; however, Yaroslavsky in claimed that all scholars and scientists who believe in God were insincere deceivers and swindlers.
The League trained a massive number of antireligious propagandists and other workers. This work included lecture cycles. The League of Militant Atheists attempted to "control and exploit the Proletarian Freethinkers," a group founded by socialists in , in order to diminish the influence of religion, particularly Catholic Christianity, in Central and Eastern Europe.
The League of Militant Atheists aided the Soviet government in killing clergy and committed believers. By , "over bishops, tens of thousands of Orthodox clergy, and thousands of monks and lay believers had been killed or had died in Soviet prisons and the Gulag.
The LMG had reduced the number of religious communities of all faiths from 50, in to 30, by and 8, by The last figure includes, however, 7, communities in the annexed western territories so that only 1, actually remained in the rest of the country. The climate of the campaign against religion was changing in the late s and early s.
He called for patient and tactful individual work without offending the believers, but "re-educating" them. He claimed that religion had disappeared in some parts of the country but in other parts especially in the newly annexed territories it was strong, and he warned against starting brutal offensives in those areas. He alleged that there were very few attempts to re-open churches and that this was a sign of the decline in religion.
He branded those who tried to re-open churches as "former kulaks" and "falsifiers of figures". An answer to this report was found when Nazi Germany invaded in Churches were re-opened under the German occupation , while believers flocked to them in the millions. In order to gain support for the war effort both domestic and foreign , Stalin ended the antireligious persecution   and the LMG was disbanded. All LMG periodicals ceased to publish by September Its official disbandment date is unknown, but traced somewhere between and In , he even published a positive article about Orthodox writer Dostoevsky , describing his alleged hatred of the Germans.
This article includes content derived from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia , —, which is partially in the public domain. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Militant atheism. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Religion portal. New York: HarperCollins, Totalitarian movements and political religions.
Psychology Press. Retrieved Yaroslavsky, which operated under close Party supervision and often in conjunction with its youth organization, the Komsomol. No religion was spared in the general onslaught.
Ziegler , p. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Created in , the League of the Militant Godless was the nominally independent organization established by the Communist Party to promote atheism.
Cambridge University Press Pegasus Books, , p. The Fine Art of Propaganda. Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo LGU, Religion in the Soviet Union. Bobryshev, 'K perevooruzheniiu na odnom iz boevykh uchastkov', and Yaroslavsky, 'Nauchites pravil'no vladet' oruzhiem marxizma' — both in Antireligioznik, no.
Continuum International Publishing Group, Penguin, Religion and the Cultural Crisis in India and the West. Intercultural Publications. Retrieved 14 July Enisherlov, A Lukachevsky, M. Mitin eds , M. Moscow: Gosudarskoe antireligioznoe izdatel'stvo, , p. Also N. Amosov, 'Antireligioznoe vospitanie v deistvii', Voinstvuiuschee bezbozhie Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol.
Amosov, Antireligioznaia rabota na poroge utoroi piatiletki M. Lukachevsky, Izuchenie sots, kor. Edited and Translated by Edwad E. ME Sharpe inc. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World.
50 Top Atheists in the World Today | animalsexotique.com
Tweet this! Yet for an atheist to make our ranking of the 50 top atheists in the world—given in ascending order—it is not enough merely to deny that God exists. To make our list, someone has to be very sure of him- or herself. No mere agnostics will do.
Celebrity is another requirement. In other words, our ranking is a list of people who are well known because they are atheists , among other things—as opposed to people who are mainly famous for some other reason like Jodie Foster or Bruce Willis.
In a few cases, a person has made the list mainly on the basis of his or her attack on free will and morality—the foundation of the traditional religious view of human beings—so long as the person has also publicly identified as an atheist. Energy is another requirement.
To make our ranking, the atheist must be an activist. He or she must exhibit some desire to win others over to atheism. The person must look upon atheism not just as an intellectual position or worldview, but also as a cause or movement.
You might say ours is a list of atheists with attitude. As the final requirement, we give pride of place to seriousness. We ask ourselves this question: How many rounds could this person go in the ring so to speak with a top-notch defender of religious belief?
Compare our feature article on influential persons of faith here. This last requirement leads to some counterintuitive rank assignments for well-known atheists. For instance, Richard Dawkins does not make the head of our list. Because this may disappoint some of our readers, we have, after our ranking, also ordered the atheists on our list by the number of Google hits that their names obtain. The group, which has local chapters in many states, is currently based in Cranford, New Jersey, where Silverman makes his home.
His novels are horror stories with an atheist slant. He also blogs for Atheist Nexus. It would seem to me that after having so recently escaped our slavemasters that we would have had enough of masters. Barker, a former Protestant minister, is a jazz pianist, composer, author, and television personality.
He was ordained in in California, and served as pastor of churches affiliated with the Quaker, Assembly of God, and other denominations. He also served as a missionary for two years in Mexico. Barker announced his conversion to atheism in He is also a host with the Freethought Radio Network. Books: Godless and The Good Atheist. Greydon Square is an Iraq-War veteran and rap artist, who incorporates atheism into his musical act.
Myers is Associate Professor of Biology at the University of Minnesota, Morris, where he researches the developmental biology of zebrafish from an evolutionary perspective.
The website is notable for its over-the-top vituperation. Myers also has a flair for attention-getting stunts, like piercing a consecrated host with a rusty nail. He came to international attention in by revealing the tricks used by Uri Geller, an Israeli magician who claimed supernatural telekinetic powers. Granddaughter of the famous historian, Arnold J.
She has published several books on social and political topics, including Hard Work Bloomsbury Paperbacks, Newdow is an attorney and physician famous for his atheist-inspired litigation. Though some of his lawsuits have gone all the way to the Supreme Court, so far all have been unsuccessful. Newdow is an ordained minister of the Universal Life Church. Based in San Francisco, Christina is an author and blogger. In addition to atheism, Christina writes and blogs about feminism and lesbianism.
She also publishes pornographic fiction. Shermer is an Adjunct Professor at Claremont Graduate University in Claremont, California, as well as a journalist, prolific author, TV personality, and cycling enthusiast. He is perhaps best known as an advocate for the highly speculative field of evolutionary psychology, which seeks to find evolutionary explanations for all fundamental aspects of human behavior.
She later became disenchanted with parapsychology and made a career out of debunking paranormal claims. Born Ayaan Hirsi Magan in Mogadishu, Somalia, she was granted political asylum by The Netherlands in , after which she changed her name and renounced Islam.
In , aged 33, Hirsi Ali was elected to the Dutch parliament. Pullman was born in Norwich, U. However, he only achieved real celebrity with the publication of his best-selling trilogy, His Dark Materials , between and It has been praised by atheists as an antidote to C.
He is outspoken on behalf of atheist causes in the U. Allen, a former stand-up comedian, is a playwright, jazz clarinetist, and world-renowned filmmaker. Born Allen Konigsberg in Brooklyn, he began selling jokes to newspapers while still in his teens. One path leads to despair and utter hopelessness. The other, to total extinction.
Let us pray we have the wisdom to choose correctly. Some of his subsequent films are less funny than unpleasantly bitter. Born in Aldershot, Hampshire, McEwan is considered by many to be one of the finest novelists of his generation in the U. From the beginning of his career, his work has been characterized by an extremism verging on cynical detachment with respect to his main subjects: sex, death, and moral evil. But it is with Black Dogs in that his books begin to acquire an explicitly theological dimension.
Abandoned by his parents, he was raised by his paternal grandmother, whose maiden name he adopted. His books are graphic satires of the nihilism plaguing modern society in a godless universe. Son of the famous English post-war comic novelist, Kingsley Amis, Amis fils is the author of nearly 30 books, including novels, short-story collections, and works of non-fiction. A perennial Nobel Prize candidate, he has won every major American literary prize.
Roth grew up in a Jewish family in Newark, New Jersey, but his unsparing depictions of his largely Jewish characters have been controversial within the American Jewish community. His always pronounced misanthropy has taken on an explicitly atheistic tenor in his late books, with their dominant theme of human frailty, futility, and the finality of death.
In the s, his company, Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc. However, Brockman is perhaps best known as the founder of Edge. Jacoby, a former newspaper reporter, is a bestselling author and blogger.
Though she is a strong atheist activist, her voice is one of relative moderation. He has done research on the properties of neutrinos and other elementary particles. He is best known, however, as a prolific author of popular-science books and as a crusader against paranormal claims and against religion.
Religion flies you into buildings. Hecht is a true polymath: she pursued advanced studies in France and received her Ph. She also maintains a busy schedule of interviews, lectures, and poetry readings. Be sure to catch our interview with Jennifer Michael Hecht. Fang, who holds a Ph. Born Fang Shimin, he was attacked with a hammer by hired thugs in , but escaped with only minor injuries. A prominent surgeon whose work Fang had criticized was jailed for ordering the attack. They have fundamental conflicts.
I have always opposed efforts at reconciliation. Educated at Harvard University, where he studied under Richard Lewontin, he is a specialist in the problem of speciation. He runs a web site called Why Evolution Is True, and has published a bestselling book by the same name.
Books: Why Evolution Is True. Wright is a journalist, bestselling author, and founder of Bloggingheads. Currently Senior Future Tense Fellow at the New America Foundation, he is a revisionist Darwinian evolutionary psychologist, who believes emergent and nonlinear dynamical effects influence the evolutionary process.
Carrier is a historian, author, and blogger. He received a Ph. He now runs the Naturalism as a Worldview web site, as well as a blog. He also participates in numerous public debates with Christians.
Be sure to catch our interview with Richard Carrier. The principal focus of his philosophical writing, both historical and systematic, has been philosophical hedonism.
He traces his philosophical lineage to the Cynic, Diogenes of Sinope. Pinker is a psychologist, linguist, and bestselling author. Born in Montreal and a naturalized U.
It has been announced that Pinker will join the faculty of the New College of the Humanities in London, the all-star university founded by A. A native of British Columbia, she is married to the philosopher, Paul Churchland. Experience in a culture shapes the style into specific habits and preferences using the reward system. He is both a productive scholar and a prolific author of popular philosophical works.
These oganizations may be said to combat paranormal claims and religion in equal measure.